ᡡ ѡ ߽ ѡѡ տѻ߬ ǡӫ ի ߡ ߽ ɫ߿ ߬ѡѡ ѽ߬ ӫ

´ ᡫ , ѡ . .. , Ҭ

13 / 31 ߻ 150 ߫ ӫѡ Կѽ ǡӫ 쿬߬

2020 ߻ߴ 150 ߫ ӫѡ ѡѡ տѻ߬ Ӽ߬ ҡ߬ ǡӫ (쿬߬). Խү ѡ Ҽߴ ԫ Կѽ, ߴ ߽Ѯ Ԭӫѡ, ԫ ԫ ߽ ѽ ӿԫ .

ڿ Կѽ ӫߴ 1 [1] 1870 Ѽ ԫѡ ߽ҪѽѮ Ӭ ѽ ū ӫ߽߬ ӡ. ӫ߽ ٽ ԫ ѡ, 988 ?Կߴ ѽ 񿼿 ߬ ߴ ?. Կ ѡ ӫԫѮ ߽߬ ѫѡ ߻ ߫޿ ῡ ѡ ѡ ѡѼ 񿼿.

Ե ? ǽѬ ? Ὣ ԫ. 1879 Կԡ ӫ 񿼿 ߫ѡ ԡ ѽ᡿ һ ߬ ի . ѮѼ 񿼿 ǽѬӫ 쿬߬ ӫ߽߬ү իү Ѽӿ, 1895 ? ߬߬ү իү Ѽ (). ѡ Ѽ ߽ѡ ߫ ԫ ᡡ ӫ߬ 1893 񿼿 ٽ ӿѡ տ ѡѼ ǡӫ. , 1895 ӫᬫ ǡӫ ԫ ߽, ڿԿ ߽߬ү ᵿ ?ѵӬ ѡ ӿԿ ? 󴺿 ӫ߫ ߬һѡ?.

ū߽ ٻ߬ ǡӫ ӫѽ ӫԡ ӡٮ ѡٮ . үڿ , Ѻᮡ ѡٮ, ٽ ߬ѽ ӿټ ԡټ ѽѬ, 󴺿 Ѽ ٽ ѼὫ ӫѽѽѮ, ԫ ߽ Ѯ Կ. ٮ ӫԫ Ѽ ѽ߬ ѡ, Ѵ Ѯ ӿ߬ Ѽѡ, ѡ ߴ ǡӫ տ߬ ԡ: ڡ ߻Ѭԫ Ѽӿ ߿ (1896), ߻Ѭԫ ի󡫮 Ѽӿ , ԫ ӡ (1896?1897), ߽ٮ ߿ (1897?1898), տӿ Ѭԫ ի󡫮 Ѽӿ (1899?1900), Ѽ Ѭԫ ߬ ի󡫮 Ѽӿ (1900?1906). Դ 1906 ǡӫ ѡ ѻ߬ 迫߬ ߽Ҫ ڡ ɫ߿߬ ի󡫮 ߿ , Ѽ ߴ ӡټ ѻ߬ ӫ 򫽼߬ (1907?1908), ѻ߬ ƿ߬, ټ ӿѼ ӫ߬ ѻտ (1908?1913), ѻ߬ ļ߬ (1913?1914).

իѡ Կѽ ߬ү ⫽ Ὣ 30 1914 ạѡѼ ѻ߬ Ӽ߬ 櫽߬. ԫ ٽ ӡٮ Ӭ ӿ ѴѽԿ ǡӫ. ӿѽ Ѻٮ 1917 . ໿߬ ǡӫ ߬ ѻӿԿ , Ѻ Կ. 1918 ? ѽ ѺҪԿ Ѯ ӫԿ , ԫ ٽ Կѽ. 髺ѡٮ տѻ߬ Ӽ߬ ҡ߬, ǡӫ ٽ ߫޿ Ѯ Կ, ԫ ӫ ѡ, ԫ ߫-տѿ ὿ ? ٽڿ?. ӵ ޡү ạ տѻ߬ ǡӫ, ᬫ ᪿ Ѽ 7 1918 .

߫߬ Ѽ ի ѡ ѡѡ ǡӫ ٽ ԫ. ߽ ӫѡ, ӫ, ѡ ի ӫ ѽ. ᬫߴ ԫ ߽ Ӭ߽Ҫѽ. ѡ տѻ߬ ǡӫ ӿѬ ӿ 󡿼᡿ ߫, ԫӿ, , ҽӫ, ߬.  ǡӫ ߫ѡ . ġ ԫ ߫Ӫѽ, ỿ ᬿ Ӭ, ߫ټ, ӫټ ԡټ ٬, ԫ ߡ ޿ӫ ѽѮ, үڿ, үڿ .

񡫮 󫺼 Կ ӫ, ߬ տѻ߬ ǡӫ, ԫ ᡫߴ ߽ ի ߡ ߽ ɫ߿ ߬ѡѡ ѽ߬ ӫ.

߫ ԫ ߽ ѡ ԫ, ӫ, 񿺼 ѽ ǡӫ ߫ ԫ Ѻҽ ѫԿ߬ ѡ ӫ, ? ߿߬ ߽Ҫ ӿ ѡ ߫ѡ Ἣ Ѯ ὿, ѵ, ӵ, ᡵ, Ѽ ᡿ ռߴ , ߫ѡ 1897 .

ɿ, ԫ ӫ, ὿ԫ ӫ ߽ѡ ѡ, տ ѡټ Ἷ ӿԿ, Խ Һѽ ǡӫ, ԫ ԫ ӿ߬, Կ, Կ ߫ Ἣ ӿ. ūԿ ߽Ҫѡ Կ ɿ, ԫ ỿ ǡӫ (쿬߬) ߽ Կ ԫ߬ ߽Ҫѡ: ? Ѽ, ạѡ ӫ߽ѡ ѡ , , ᡫ ٽ ?ӡ? ѽѡ , Ԭ Ѯ ߫. Ѭ ԫ, , ի 󽴮, ѽ , ? ߬. ߿ , , -Ѽ ӫ, ߫ѡ Ѽ, Ҭ ߫Ѽ ѡ. ᬫ ߽Ҫѡ Ӭ ԫ: ӿ ӫ, ߴ , ߻ ߻߿ѽ ӫѡ үѼ; ѡѮ ? ԫ : ԫ Լ, ԫ ԫ үڿ Ҫ ߫ѽ ѽ, Ѽ . 潫, Ѽ ӫ ѼѡѼ ߻ ߯ Ѽ, ԫ ... ԫ Ὤ, ߻᡿ үڿ, ԫӫ ὴߴ ừԫ ѽ?[2].

ū߽ ѡ ӿ߬ Ἣ ӫᬫ ǡӫ 󽴽ߴ ӿ 󫿼 ߽ټ ߫񡿬: ? , ԫ, ӿԫ Ҫѡ. ɿ߬ ѡ ѡ Ἣ . : ߡ Ѯ Ѽ ӿԫ, Ѽ ӿ߬ ߬: ?髺ߴ ! Ҫѡ! ԫ ??.

ǡӫ ỿ Ԭ ߽ ѡ Ѻҿԫ ɿ: ?ԫ Ѽ ߴ ߴ߬ Ѯ ӫ, ԫ ߫ Ӫ . ӫ Ѯѽ Ҭ: ߽ 󡿬, ԡ 󫽿 Ѯ. ū, Ҫߴ Ӫ Ѯ ߿, ߬Ѯ ߼߽ ӿԿ߬ Ӭ, Ѽ ӿԫ. ӫԿ, ӫ ᬫ, ԫ Ӭ, ԫ ߻, ԡ ߻ڿ ڿ ӡ ѻӡ ѵ. ūԫ ԫ, ạ , ӿ٬ ߫ѽ ߽ 󫿼 ԫӫ, Ӫ Ӵ, ѡԿ, ԫ ѻѼѡ ӿ , իԴ Դ ޡ ٽ ԫ, ѿԫүѮ Կ ߴ տ ߴ ޡ, ڿߴ Ѽ. ߿Ѽ ӫ ӿӫ ԫ, ԫ ߻ Ѯѽ Ӫ Ѯ Կ?[3].

ū, 1909 , Ҫ ѻ߬ ߡ ẽ ѽ, ǡӫ Ѻ, ԫ, Խ ԫ ӫ, ?߽ ԫ ӿԿ?.

? Կ Կ߬ ѡ ӿԿ ? ỿ ӫ ? ߫᡿ : ỿԫ ѽ ޡѼ ԫӿ , ޿ -ԫ ѽѬ ; ӫԫ... ӿԿ Ѭԫӫ , ? ǡӫ. ? ԫ ԫ ѻӫ ӿԿ ? ߽. Ҵ ѻѽ ߽ ӿ : ?Ҵ , ٮ? (. 6, 47), ߽ ߼ӿ ߯ Ѽү ԫ ߫Ѯ ԫ ѡ. ߴ Ѽ , , Ҭ , , Ѽ, ߴ ԫ Ὣ ԫ, ԫ Ԭӫߴ Ѽ, ӫ. ԫ ߴ ѽѬ 񫽪 ߻ѡ ԫ , ޿... ѡ ߻ Ӫѽ 񫽪 ᬫ, Ҭڿ ѽѬ ѽ ѡ?[4].

ӫ ǡӫ үڿ:

? Ѻ ߴ ߬ ѡ ᬫ 񫽪 ߯ ѽ 񫽪, ԫ . ? ѽ ޿ һ!

տѻ߬ ǡӫ ߬ Ѫѡ, ԫ ԫ ߽ ߴ ټ ѻӫټ ӿԿ.

ġ : ? ߬ ӫ, Կߴ ӿ ԫ 񿼿, ѽ ү ѽү ? ӫ -Ѽ, Ѽ- ӫ ߻ ... Ἣ ߬ӫ Կ ٽ ҬѡѼ Ѯ ӫ񡫮 ; ӿ񿽿 Ҽѡ, ѡ ԫ ᡵ, ӿѺ޿ ӿ ӫ޿ ԫ , ү ߫ ӿԿ߬ ԫԿ 󫿼 Ѯ޿ Ὣ ԫ ѽ Ѽѡ. Կ ۴ߡߴ ӫ , ߽Ҫѡ, ټ ѽ, ߴ ; ߯ 󫺪 Ἳ Ἷ, Ҭ ټ ӿἿ ӫ߬ޡ ӿѯ, ᬫѵ, ӫߡ, ԫӪѡ, ԡ . Ѽ ԫ ߬ߴ ӫѡ ߫ ޿ ӿԿ߬, ѼѮߴ , ԴѮߴ 񡫼 ? ԫ Ѽ ừὫ ... ԫ- Ѽ Կ ѡ ԫ ӿԿ߬ ߫ԫ ߫ԫ ??[5]

ǡӫ Ӭ: ?޿ ѽ Ѯ ӫ񡫮 ὿ ӫ , ߵѼ, Կ ᬫ, ԫ ߴڿ Ἣ ӿ , Ѽ Ѽ Կ ӫѡ?[6].

տѻ߬ ǡӫ ٽ Ѫѡ, ԫ ᬫ ޡ, ߬, ᬿ ӫ ٽ ᡿ ѡ, ߼ ߻ 񫽪ٮ Ӵ .

?ūӴ޿ ߫ ? ᬫ!? ? үڿ Ѽ Ӭ ӫѮ.

߫Ѽѡ ӫ߿߬ , ԫ ߽, ӫ , Ү ߵѽ ѡ.

ѼѡἿ 󫺡 ѡ, ԫ Ѽ Ѯ ?, ѡ?. ݬ ѽ󿺫 Ҽ , 󬽯 ޿ ӿԫ, ẽ ѡ Ҫ , ?߬߿? ѡ, ? ߴ ?. ѡἿ ߴ 󫺼 տ Ѽ, ừ޿ ԡ Ӵ , ԫ ѺѡѼ ?Ἷ?: ޿ ѡ Կ, ᡬ, ѽ ᡬӫԫ, ߫ѽ ѽѬ , , ԫ ԫ ߼ ٻԿ, . , Ҵ ߫ѡ ᬫ , Ѻᡡ ߫Ҫ ߬ ߫ Ἷ, ᡬӫԴ ڡ һ󽴯ڿ ᡿, ߫ ԡ Ѯ ѡ ӫѽ ߴ 񫼫, ߫ ӫ.

Ѻ ѽѬ ᬫ! ?ƫ ߽ ߻ ѽѬ ԡү , ԫ ѡ Ѽ ߼ һ ѡ ᬫ !? ? Ӫ ǡӫ ѡ Ѯ Ѯ .

տѻ߬, ὿Ҵ ߬ ߽ Ѫ XIX?XX Ѭ, ѽ , ԫ ?ӫ ߬ ҽ ҽ ?.

? Ѽ Ҭ , , ߬᡿, ӫ񡫼 ӡ ѻѼѡ ߬᡿ ѡ ѡԿ , ? ǡӫ. ? ߬ ѽѬ, ߻޿ Ѯ ߬ ҽ, -ᬿ ߼ӿ ӿѡ ѽ ѡ ӫ߫ . Ἣ ԫ ߫ѡ ᡿ ᡿ ѽѬ Ѽ... 󫽯, 󫺼 ӫԫ , ԫ ...

Ѽ ԫ Ҫ ߬ ӫ ӫԫ. ٽ ѡ Ѯ߬ Դԫ ? ӫԫ ߬ ѽѬ , ԫ ٽ ߫Կ... իٮ ? Ἣ ... ӫ ԫߴ ߬ ѽѬ. 佴 ԫ ԫ ߴ . ԫ Կ ߴү ١, ѡԿ Կ, ԫ Կ ի ѡ, ѡ Ҽѡ ӫ ѡ?[7].

ǡӫ ٽ ѽ . ġ Ѽ , ԫ Կ ᡡ ԡ ѽѬ, Ѽ Ѫ, ԫ ԴԿ.

ạ Ӵ, ǡӫ ѡ ѽѬ, ԫٮ ߻ߴ Ѽ.

Ҭӿ, ߽ ѽ, ԫ ѽѬ Ҫߴ, ԫѬ , ߫ ӡ һ, Ҭ ߽. Ӵ үڿ Ѯ, ԫ ޽ Ѽ ߫ԫ.

ǡӫ Կ ӿ үڿ:

? ڿ ӿ Ѽ !

ѽ ѡ ߽὿ ߻ ٮ ߫:

? ӿԫ Ҫ Ѽ ! , 󫿼 Ѽ. ԫ ߫ ԫ һ...

1914 ļ߬ ѻ߬ ǡӫ һ Ӭ ӫ, ԫ Ӵ߽ үڿ . ӫ ٽ ỿ ?ļ߬ ѻտ 񫼫Դ? 󬫼 ?ӿԫ ?[8].

ӫ ѻ߬ ļ߬ ߴ , ԫ Ҫ ѯ Ѽ ӿ ߴ Կ ԫ ү : ?ӿ 󫿼 󡿼᡿Ѽ Ἣ Ѽ ߼ӿ ޡ ѡ . ԡ߿ߴ һ Ѯ? ӿ ߻ԡ, , , ԡ, , ѽ ӫ Ѻᬫ? 諡, ӿ... , Ἣ, ѡ Ѽ ѽѡ Ӭ, ߫󽴴 ԫӫ Ѻ޿ ... ټ 񫽪ټ, ټ 񫽪ټ, ѻټ. , ᬫ ӿӫ , ԫ ԫ ӫ ӿ ѡ ټ 񫽪ټ... 髿Կ Ѭ ߽ Ѯ : Ѽ. ԫ Ѯ ߫ѡ ӿӫ, ӫѡ Ѯ ...

󫿼 󡿼᡿Ѽ . ߴ 󫿼 Ѽ ߼ӿ, Ѽ ԫߴ Ҽߴ, Ѽ ߴ ԫ ߫ѡ ӫ. , ԫ ԫߴ ߴ ߫ һ; Ҽߴ ἫӪѡѼ ߫ ӫԫ ; ߴ ԫԫ ԫԿ; ӫߴ ߫᡿Ѽ...?[9]

ӫ ѻ߬ ǡӫ ߴ , ԫ ӿԫ ѽߴ , ԫ ԫ , ߬ . ġ , ԫ ?ӿԫ ߿ѽ Ҫ ԫ Ѯ ?, ԫ իߴ ѽѬ ԫ Ѽ . ѻ߬ ߫: ?ڿ ߻߿ѽ ѡ ӿԫ. , ԫ , ѡ ٮ... ڿ ӿ ԫ, , Ẽ޽ѡѼ, ߫ӵ᡿Ѽ ߴ ټ ߻߿ѽټ , Ҽڿ , ڿ ӫ񡴯ڿ , ԫӫ Ѯ ӿ޽. Ѽ ӿ, ġ ѽߴ ԫ ի Ӵ... ƫ ԫ ߬᡿ Ѽ ġ , ԫ ӿԿ , ѡ ԫ ӿ , ԫټ Ѽ, ի Ѽ... , ޡ Ѯ, ߽Ҫ ߻߫ ӿ Ѽ ѻѡ ѡ ߽Ҫ, ޿. ừԫ ߽Ҫ ߻߫ ừѡ Ἷ, ѡ, ѡ, ᡿, ? ӫ ԫ ԫ ừԫ ߻. ߱ ӿ , ӫ ԫӫ ӫѽ ԫޡ . ߿ ߴ . Ѽ ߫ѡ , ԫ Կ ߻ѡ. ?ūԫ ԫ Ѽ ү Կ, Ἷ ߻ү ߻ѡ? (ɿ. 10, 10)?[10].

ūѼ , ߬ӡ ӡټ һἿ ѡ? ߬ѡ ѽ߬ Ԭ ߽Կ? ߿ ߬ , ѡ ὿?

Կ ӫ ߯ 󫽡὿ ǡӫ.

 ڿߴ Ѵѽ ߽ѽ ӫ޽ Ӫ὿, ԫ ӫԫ -ա߬ ӫ Ѻ ѽ߬ Ԭ ӫ. ٽ ߫ߡ Կ ߿ ѫӿ ҡ .Ӭ .ءѽ.

ѡ ߽ ǡӫ ᡡ ӫ Ӵ ӫԿ󫻫. ġ ߡ ߬ ߬ ߫, Ѯ ӫ һ Ѭ, ٮ ѡ , 1901 . ӫ ٽ ?߬ ѻտ 񫼫Դ?[11] ӿ ѡ ߫ ߫߬ , ڿ Ἷ ߻Դ ԫԿ, I Ѭ.

ԫ տӿ ǡӫ ӿ Ѯ ѵ ɿ , ޡ ӫԫ ԿѼ ӫ ӫ߽ ѡ . 󡴴 ѵ, 󡿮 ɿ, Կ Ὣ ӫ, ԫ ẽ, ὿ ѬԿ ᡿.

?Կߴ ԫѮ ߼ӿ ? ߴ ( , Ѭ) ѽ ӫ ѽ?? ? ߻޿ ǡӫ.

: ? Ѽ ӫѡѼ, Ἣԡ, Ҭ ѡ... Ҽ ӫټ ټ Ѻټ ӫἿ, ạ ߫Ѽѡ ᡿ ߻ ѽ ѽ ԬԿ ѡ ӿ: ԫ ӫߴ ѽѬ ӿӫ... ԫ , ԫ ? ԫ ӿߴ? Ὣ ѻ Ѯ, ẫӫᡡ , Կ޿ һ᡿ ԫ ԫ Ἣ ?.. Ὣ ߼ ᬿ: ի һ, , ӿ Ҭ, Ѽ ӿ , , ӫ, ߬޿ ߫ Ѽ, ߴ Ѻӡ, ޿ӫ ӫԫ Ѽ 󫿼 ߬ӡټ ѽ᡿... ԫ ӿ ѽ ӫѡ ӫ ӫ߿ү ѽ? , ԫ ߫Ѽ ...?[12]

? Ѽ ߼ӿ ӫѡ. Ѽ ߽Ҫ Ҭ, ߬, ԫӫ ߫ѡ իԴ ӫѡ ߫? ? ӫ ǡӫ. ? Ҭ ҽѡ Ӽ . ԫ ߽Ҫ Ѽ 񡫼 ? Ҭ һ ӿ ѽ 󬫮 ԫӫ ѽ ừ; Ҭ , Ѻߡ ѽѬ; ѡ ѽ ߼ӿ, Ҭ 񿬫 ѽԿ !.. ߬ ạ ߽ Կ ߽Ҫѡ Դ, ѽ ԫ ѡ Կ ѽ߬? ū߼ӿ ߫Ѽѡٮ , 󫻿, ߽ Һ٬, Ү ? ᬿ ѡ, , , ӫ... Ҫѡ ᡿ ѡԿ, ԫ ᡿ Ѽѡ... үߴ Ѽ Կ ԫ, ԫ , ߴ, Ѻ ԫ ߼... ի󡫼 ԡѡ ѽ ѡ, Ѽ , Ѽ Ҫ (ѡ ѡ ߫ ǡӫ! ? ..)... , ѡ ѡ ӫ , ԫ ѡ ẽѡ ?[13].

ԫ ߻Կ ѽ, ҽ Կ ի󡫼 Կ ?

տӿ ǡӫ Ԭ ߡٮ ԫ ӫ: ѽ ߻Կ ԫ ᡿ ի-ѡ ѡѮ Ἣ ѽѬ ѽ߬ .

?󫺼 ѽѬ 󫺼 ? (. 18, 27).

?߻, ޿ ԫү Կ ѽѬ, 񫽪ү ѡү ߫, ? ߡ ǡӫ. ? ūԫ, ߴ ѽѬ , ӿԫ ӿ ߫, Ἣ߫ᡡԿ, ӿ᡿ ߬ Խѡ... ի ӫ, ѡ ߫ѡ ѽѬ... 󽿴 Ҫү . , ԫ ѡ ӫ, ԫӫ , ӿԿ ѡ ԫ ߫ѡ᡿ Կ, , ... [Ҫ] Ѭߴ Ѽ ӫ߿󡫮 ߿ ѽ, ѫի񿼫 Ѭߴ ԫ ի󡫮 ߫ԫ ѽѬ, ѯ-ԫ Ҭ߿ ?[14].

ᬿ ẫ, ѽ Կ Կ, ի ӫ Ѻ ѫү , ᪡ѮѮ Ѯ ӿԿ߬ ߴ ߬ѡѡ իԿ ѽ߬ ӫ ߽Ѯ.

ᬫ ԫ ѽ ѻ߬ ǡӫ ޿ Ѯ, 󬽯 үڿ? ġ ѽ ѽ߬ ӫ.

, Ὣ , һ Խٮ Ӭٮ 񡿬 ? ɫ ӿԫ. ԫ 񡿬 ӿ, ԫٮ ߡѽ Ѽ , ԫ 󫿼 ѡ߬ ߴ ӫ 󫺡Կ Ѽ.

ߴ ӫѡ߬ .

? ӿߴ Ѽ, ԫ ӿիߴ ߿ , Ѽ ԬἿ! ? ߬ ѻ߬ ǡӫ. ? ū-񿼫, , ڿ -ᬿ ӿԿἿ, Ҽ, ԫ 񡿬 ү ѽ ѡ ߴ ӫ. Ѻ, ѽ, , ԫ ߡٮ , ޿ ߴ , ԫټ ừߴ Ԭ Ѯ... Ἣ ԫ Ѽ һ ߻. 꽿 Ҽ ӿԿ, ԫ ԫ ѽߴ, ԫڿߴ ߻, ԫ ٮ ߽ ѽ, , , ?.. ߼ӿ, ߬ Ԭ , , Ӻ޿, ѽ ᡿߬ ߿? 漫ӿ, ߻ ѽߴ , ߬ ӿ, ԫ Ԭ ٽ ѽ!.. , ߽ , ߫, ӿ ᬫ ! ԫ , իү , ի ӫԽѡ ӿѽ ߻ . ū ߬ Դѽ , ӫ ԫ, ӫѽ, Ҽټ Ἷ ի ߫ạ ի ? ԫ Ἷ (. 13, 11) ߴ Ѽ?[15].

ԫ Ҫ ѽ Կ Խ ?

?ӿ ԫ , Ѯ , Ẽ߽ ? ԫ ߽ ѽ ߴ , ӿԿ, ߿ . ߯ ɫѡ߬ү ӿ ߴ Ѯ , , իѡ ߻, Ѽ ߫ ᬫ ? ԫ Ԭ Ѯѽ ټ 񡴼, ߽Ѽ ߻... ի ӫ ߫, ӿ ... իӫү, ếѽү, Ѻү ... Ѽ ӿիߴ ի Ӭ : ѻ ѽ ԫ Ѽ. ӫ ԫ , ѽ ӫ, ա , ỿߴ Ѽ իӫ޿ ếѽټ ?[16].

񡿼 ӫ ի ѽѬ ѻ߬ ǡӫ . ūѼ? ū Ѫѡ ǡӫ, ڿ ѽѬ Ѽ Ҽ, ҡ Ѽ ټ ὴߴ . ߻ѡ ѡ ѫի ի Ѻѡ.

ԫ ӫ үڿ ӿ ǡӫ ߽ ԫ ừԫ : ? ߽ү? (1 . 6, 10).

Ѯ, ߫Ѽѡ ɫ߿, Ὤ 󽴯 Ѯ. ūѡ Ὤ Ҭ .

, ӿ, Ѭ, ԫ ԫ Ѽ, ѻ߬ ǡӫ ѡ ӿ Ԭߴ Ὤ, ѡ ɫ߿ ߫󽴽 0,6 (ӿѽ 6 ), ԫ ٽ ߬ , Ѽ Ӽ᡿, ? Ѽ Ѽѵ ٻ 2,15 Ὤ, ԫ 21 /!

2020 ѡ Ὤ ɫ߿ Կ 11,7 /. ԫ 11- ԫ ߫ ! ԫ  (15,2 /), (15,0 /), տ (14,4 /), ᡵ (12,6 /) Ѭԫ , һ, Խ ɫ߿, ѿѡ , ӫ߿ ѻ ߻ԡ ỿԬ, ӫ.

߽, Ӽ᡿ ὿ ѡ ? 13 / ( ѡ Ὣ Ѭ ѡ Ὤ ߡ Կ ). իߴ 45- (9,8 /), ޿ Ǻ ӿ һ Ὤ ߬ ѡ, Ѽ ߬. ūԡ ߽ ԫ ᡿ ߬ ? 0,2 / ѽѬ!

һԿ ( ԿԿ 75,4% һѡ ߫ߴ ߫ԫ Ὤ ѡ), Ѽ, Ὤ ӿ Դѽټ ᡿ , ߫, 󡫮 ߿Ѽ, ѡ, Ѭ ᡫ, ѪѼѡ ߼Կ.

ԫ ѻ߬ ǡӫ ᡡ ӫѼ ߫Ѽѡ ɫ߿.

髻ӫ ѡ ѡ ǡӫ.

ѽ ߽ ߽ѽ ߬ٽ ү ӿ .

޿ ԫӫ Ѫ, ѻ , ԫ ӿ ԫ ӡ ѡ ? Ѫ ӫ, ݬ߬ ߽, ԫ ߽ , ѡ.

ԫ ǡӫ, ԫ ѡ ᡡ ѡ: ? Ѽ, ԫ ẫᡡ, ѫẫᡡ... ᬫ , ԫ ԫ ạѮ, ԫ ӫ ޿ Ѯ Ѽ, 󫬽ߡ Կ ԫ. ӿ ѡ ӫ, ᡵ, ӫ. ẫ᡿? ὿Ὣ Կ ? ӫ, ѻ , Կ ӿ ѫѮ ἫԡԿ, ѫ ?.. Ѽ իӫޫ, ի ү ү ѡ. ߬ ߫ѡ 󽿴 ҽѡ ѡ ݬ߬ ߽ . ӫᮡ ӫ ӫ, ӫ ѡٮ Ѭ. ᬫѵ, , Ѭ, ҽ, , ӫ ѡԡү ѡ, ӿ ӿ߬ ԫ ? ѽ!? ? ԫ : , ԫ ٻ, 󽴯ߴ ? ԫ, ӫ ѽѡ, ѽ, ѡ?[17].

ѻ᡿ ԫ, ԫ ߴ 󡫮 ӿ , ӿѽ Ἳ᡿ Ὤ, Ѵү ūӫ 80- ԫԿ. ѫ὿ Կѽ : ӫ὿ ԫ 14 19 ߫, ὿ ӫ ߫ѡԡ, ߫὿ ԫ ԫ (ԫ ӫὫ ߬ , ٮ ѽѬ ԫ ߽ ߽ѡ ߿ ?ѡ? ), ὿ 󿡫񡿬 ..

὿ ѡ? ߻ԡ ỿԬ һ὿ ӿӫ, ߿ԫ, ߻Ѭҽԫ; ὿ ߫ Ἣѡ ᪡, ѡ Կټ ߻ԫ ѡἿ Կ ѡ.

Ѭ Կѽ ǡӫ һѪ: Կѽټ Ἷ ѽ . ѽ ߫ ߬ٽ ү ӿ ? ѡ ѡ ѡѮ . , ǡӫ, ? ԫ ѡ, Ѻ 󫽿 ѽѬ.

໿߬ : ? Ѽ ԫ ӿ ? ԫԿ ӿѡԿ ѡ ѽѬ, ߽ѡԿ 󫽿. ӿ ᬫ ѽ Ἷ , , ẫᡡ, ӫ... ѡ ӿ ? Ѫ ի, ѡ, ӿһѡ ѡ ߫᡿, ѡ ѡ ԡѡ Ἣ ߫ ߼߽ ạѡѼ?[18].

ū ѡ ǡӫ, Ὣ ѻѡ Ѽ ߵѡ᡿ ѽ ѡ ߡ . ߵѽ ѽ , ۴ѡ ٽ , , ҡ ѽѬ. ὿ , ԫ ὿ ừߴ ԫ, ӫ ѡ ѡ.  ӫ߿, ѽ 񬫮.

߿ . ? ԫ Ѫ ի ὿ ạҺᡡ, ԫ ߫ߴ ѻ? ? ߻޿ ѻ߬. ? ſ ޡ , Ἣ ٻ᡿ ߿ ԫ ٮ ի񿽫 ԫ ߻ޡ , ѻ Ҫ, , ӡ, Կ. ? ԫ ߼ѽ , ѡ, ߼ѽ ӿѽ, ѻ, ҽ ὴߴ ү?[19].

ū Ѫѡ ǡӫ, ӫ ԫ Ѽ Կ ѡԿ ѽѬ, Կ ի . ѽ ߿Ѽ , ѡ ԫ, ѻ߬ ǡӫ ޫ ѡ ӿ ѴѽԿ ѺԿ, ԫ ߫὿ ӿ տ ļ߬ Ӽ߬ ӡ ѽ ޫ ߻ .

ԫ ӫ ᬿ ѺԿ ߫Ѽѡ ɫ߿, ԫ Ӵ , ѡ?

1916 ٬ Ѻ Ѯүү Ӽ, ӫ. ի޿ߴ Ѫ Ӽ ӫ-߬ ᡿ Ӽ߬, Ӽ߬ ѻᵿ ߽ ἴ. Ӽ ٽ ӿ ԫӫ 쿬Ѽ II, ѻ߬ ǡӫ ѽ , ߽үڿ ѡ ӿ Ӵ ߽Ҫ ի񡫮 Ӭ[20].

ԫ Ѻ ѻ߬ ӫ ޫ Ҫ. ġ ߴ ߬ 쿬 II Ԭ, үڿ Ӽ߬ ӡ:

?? ߬ӫ, , ԫ ӫ ߼ Ҽ, Ѽ ѡ Ѽټ Դ, ߽Ἷ ߻ԡ. ѽү ߿ ѯ ӫ󿺡 ߻Ѭҽ, ڿ ѽѡ. ᪡ , Ӽ Ҫ, , Ѯ. ߽󽴽 ӫ ߬ , Ҵ ѺԿ ٮ 󫮡[21]. ѻ ӫ ڿ ߫ Ѽ ١Ѽ. ? ? ? ߻ӫ߿ 쿬 II. ? ūӫ ѽ Կ. ū , ԫ ߽ ԫ ү ѡ ߴ : , ߽ ѽ ԫ, ԫ ԫ?[22].

Ӽ߬ ӡԫ .. 﫺-﫺߬ ٽ ѡ, ѡ ѽᵿ ӿѺ Ӽ ὿ Ѽ ߽, ߬ᡡ ǡӫ ӯ.

? ԫ ӿ ӯ? ? ӿ, ߻ӫ߿ . ? ߫߬ ừ, իѽ. ? Ѽ? ? ūӬ, ԫ Ӽ߬ ӡ Ӽ. ? һ! ? ԫ ӡԫ Ἷ. ? ѻ߬ ǡӫ ӿ ӯ ү Ѭ !

쿬 II, ѻ߬ ǡӫ ӿ὿ ޫ ѡ ѡ , 﫺-﫺߬ ? ӿ ޿?.

쿬 II ӿ ᬿ Ѯ ҽѡ ᡫ Ӽ߬ ӡ. ٽ Ѽ, ѽ ɫ߿ ? ԫ ԫӫ. ԫ, 쿬 II ѽߴ ѻ߬ ǡӫ, ԫ ӿ ӿ ԫ ӿӿ ߻Կ, Ӵ Ѽ, ԫ ?߻Կ ? ԫ, ߬ Ѽ ӫԿ Ӵ?[23].

ᬫ ٽ 쿬 II: ѡٮ ١, ߽񡿬 ԫ ǽѬѮ 쿬, Դѽ Ӽ Ѽ, ټ ӫѡ, Ѽ ӫ ߼ѽٮ ի. .߻Կ-, ԫӫ .. ѡ, ᡿ ߽񡿬, ѡѼ ߡ [24].

٬ ǡӫ ӫ ޿, ߫ , . ġ ӿ , Ӫ ի. ԫҽߴ ᬿ ӫ, ߬ӡ߽, ԫ ӫ . 髺Կ޿ Ӽ, ԫӫ ѽ ԫ ߻὿ ѵѡӡү , ٬ ݼү ?Ӽ߬ ѻտ 񫼫Դ?, ᬿ ӫ: ? ӿի񿽫 ߽ Կ ߫ ޿ ԫ, ߼ߴ , ԫ ߽ Կѽү ?ڿ? ߬ӡ߽ү ߯. Դѽ ѡ߿ ԫ ? , ߴ ԫ ߫ ߼. , ߫ , ԫ Կ ߬ӡү ... , Կ, ԫ 󫿡, Ѽ ӿԿ Ѫ... ޿ ӡټ ߽. ӫ, ừѡ ߬ӡ-ӡټ ߽. ڿ ѽ ӿѪ ߬ ӫ. ū Ѯ Ѻ޿ Һ ɫ, ߬ ѽѬ ԫ Խ ԫ ᡿. ԫ Կ , ѽ߬ , ߴ Ѯ ڿ, Ҽ, ԫ ӿ, ߽ ޿ Ӵ. ԫ ѡ ԫ Ҫ ӿ, ԫ ڿ ӿ٬ ٻ ?[25].

ӫ޽ ѡ ի ԫ ѻ߬, -ѪѼ .

, Կ, Ѽ һ ߬ӡ-ӡ ߽? , ԫ 2020 ߽޿ ԫ ի Ѫ , ѽ߬ ?ߡٮ ừ?, Ѯ Ӽ, Ѯ ӫ ҽӡ ԫ ? ߬.

髽Ὣ ѻ߬ ǡӫ ᬫ ѡ , . ߫ѡ 󫺼ߴ, Ὤߴ Կ ӫ Ӭ߽ҪѽѮ.

ū߽ 󫻿 ߽, ѡ һѼ ļ߬ ѻտ, ѻ߬ ?ѽ ߽ ԫ ?. Ѯ ᬿ ừڿߴ ӫ: ? ѽ ߽ ү , ٽ ԡ. ӻ ᡿ ԫ , Ҽ᪡ ѴѽԿ, Խ ߻᡿ үڿ ᡿ ѽ. ߴ ԫ ԫ ߽ ߽ , ԫ ޿ Ѯ Ҫ. ӻ , ԫ ԫ ӿ ү ߫, Ѫ ߴ ߬ټ. ᬫ ẫ Ѯ ѻտѮ ѵ?[26].

߫Ѽѡ ɫ߿ ߽үڿ ߽ ǡӫ ( ١ޡ ӡԫӫ, ԫ Ѽߴ ?ү? ݡ, ߽Ҫߴ Ѻѡԫ, ԫ Ѽ ѽ ޿ ѡ, ӫ ӫ߿ ߻ Ӵ ): ?߬ᡡ ү ߴ Ѯ Կ, ԫ- ӿ ߻ѡ Ҭ᡿ 񽫪ѡ Ӵ ߻Ӵѡ. ᬫ ԫ ߴ߬ ... ӫԿ ѡ , ԫ ѽߴ ԫ , ... ѽ ẫߴ Կ ߬ѡԿ ᡿. ӫԿ, , ѽ ԫ , ߻ , ԫ ѽѡ Ҫ ӿ Ѭߡ , ᡫ 񽫪ѡ ߻Ӵѡ ; ӫԿ, Ѵѽ ԫ Ҽ, ѽ?[27].

໿߬ ǡӫ ӿ ߻᡿ Ѯ . ġ ߻ ѡ ӿӫ, Ὣ ӫ. ԫ 1914 , 󽴴 տѼ ļ߬ ѻտ: ?ӫ߽ Ѻ ߴ ߫ѡ , Կ, ӫ ӿ ӫ߽, Ӵ-ᬿ ӫ󽴯 ѡ ҪѮ ӿӫ. Կ Ѻ , ẫӴ Կ Ѻ, ߫Ӵ , Ѯ . , ߻ᡫ ӫ Դ ԡԿ Ѫ ԡѡ ӿӫ.

ᬫ ᡡ ѡ ߽ ӫ . Ѽѡ , ҽ, ԫ ԡѡ , ԡټ. , Ѽ, ެ... Ѯ ѽ ӫ ڿߴ, ӿ Դ ٬... ūѼ ެ ? Կߴ Ѻ ߻᡿ ڿߴ ٬ ?[28].

ᬫ ԫ ߬ᡡ ӿԿ ߻ѡ? ?

ѻ߬ ǡӫ Ѵ 񿫺 ѽ ? ᡿ ߫ү Ѯ ӡ ߿Ἷ Ѯ . ެ, Ӭ-ӿի߬, ٽ ѡ ԫ ѽ. ? ٮ ᪿ !? ? 󽴽 ٬. ߡ 1914 ᡿ ѻ߬ ļ߬ ӡ, 񡫮 ߫ѡ, ᬿѽ Ἷ ެ. ᬫ ߿ ߬ , ѽѡѽ ѡ !

ǡӫ ӿ Ѯ Ѯ ӫ񡫮 ӿӫ, Ѯ ӫ.

໿߬ ǡӫ ٽ ѻһѡ, ߻. ӫ Կ ߼ѽ ߬ Ԭ, ԫ ѽ ӫ߿߬ .

߼ѽ, ӿ, Ӵ ᡿ ߽ ѻ߬ ǡӫ ὿ ? ٽڿ?.

໿߬ Ӽ߬ ԫ ԫӫ ӫԫ ӫ, үڿ, ߽ ԫ 1916 ԿὫ 89,3% ѽѡ Ӽ߬ ӡ. ի ѽ ( ӫ) 󫮡 ѽ ǡӫ Կ ѡ, ү ߽ ߬ . Կ, ѻһ ߫Կ ӿ ѻ߬, ὿ , ѽ ᡬ߬ ӫԿ ? ѡѽ.

ѽ 󫮡 ?ѡ ᡫ󿽫 Ҫ Ҫ; ѡ ẽѡ, ѡ ڿ, Ὣ ޿ ߽ ӫ, ӫ ߻ 󫮡 ᪿ Ѯ Կ ӫ?[29], ? տӿ ߬.

Կߴ ? ٽڿ? ? ǡӫ ? ?諽? ѡ 1915 ӫ߿߬ ӿѽ, ᡬ, ԫ, ӿ ߫Կ: ?... ӫ 񿬿 , ӫ߿ ѽ ԫ, ߫ѡ һ ԫ ? ӿѽ. ӿ Ѽ, ԫ ӿ ѽ Կ ߡӴѡ 󫮡, ԫ Ҭ ӫ, ӿ ѡ ѡ ѫի񿼫Կ. ԫ ߴ ԫ տڡ, Ӫ ߬ ԫ ӫҬ, ԫ Ὣ ١.

߫ Կ 񡿼ߴ ѡ , ѽ ԫ ӿѽѮ. ѽ ߴ ѿѡ ᬿ ѽ ԫἿ ӿѽ, ԫ ߴ ѽѡ ߼ ? ӫԿ . ߫ѡ, ᬿ Ѽ Ҫѽ ߴ ӫ񡫮 Ҫ.

, ᡡ Կ, ᬫ տڡ ӫ Ѽ , ۴󽴴: ?ӫ ѽ ԫ? (Ѵ. 8, 20). ġ ? տڡ ߫Ѯ, ? ߡ ѿ , Ὤڿ ӫ ߻Ӵ, . ?ū߽ , : ޿, իڿ . , Ѫ ޿ ѡ ? (. 5, 1?2)?[30].

߽ ᬫ 󡫮 ӫ 񫽪 ٽ ԡ߿ߴ ѻ߬ ǡӫ ?տڡ ? ? ᡬ ӿѽ? ᬫ ѡ Ѯ ? ? ٽڿ? ӫ񫽪 ߼ѽ ߬ Ԭ .

ԫ ٬ ǡӫ տѻ߬ ӫ߬ ѡ: ?, Կ ߻὿ ӿ ߻ Ѻ Ѯ޿ 濡. Ѭ ѡӫ ᴡ , ߯. Կ ޿ ѽѡ ὿ ԫӫ: ԫ- һ ӫ, ԫٮ- Ѫ, ? Ҽ... Կ ٽ Կټ ݬѡ ի ӫ: ᬫ ᡴߴ. Ĭߴ, ԫ Կ , Ѭ . ѡ ӿ 󫮡. ߯ : 󫮡 ߴ Ѽ, իԴ 񿽿 Ѽ?[31].

1916 ѻ߬ ǡӫ Կߴ ߽᡿Ѽ, ԫӫ ڿߴ ߫Ѽѡ-ᡬӫ ӿѽѮ: ? Կ Ҫ ԫ Ѽ 󫮡 ... Ҽѯ ի ѽ ӫ Ѽ ѻӿѽ... ѡ ӿի񿽫 潫 ӿ ۴ ӫٮ ѽڿ ӫ񡫮 ѽ . Ѽ ѽ Կ ѮүѮ Ӽ ߫ ӫ ѡѼ ᬫ. ѡ , ԫ Ѽ ӿ޽ ᬿ , ԫ ߿ ѽ ԫ.

諡, ᬿ ӫἿ ᪿ 񫽪 ߴ ߬ , ԫ ѡ, ԫ ԼԿѽѼ ᡿ ѽѼ . Ѽ ӫ Ѽ ӫ ԫ ѡ Ӵ, ԫٮ ߫ Ѯү Կ... ߻ ޿ , ừѼ ߴ Կ Ѽ Ѯ ? 󫽿 ᬿ ӫ߫ԡټ , ԫ ٽ ߿ ӡټ . , ߽ ԫ ừԫ , үڿ 񫽪 ޡ ѽ , ߽, ԼԿѽ ᡿ ѽѼ (߼.: ɿ. 13, 3?4). ūԿѽҴ ټ, һ, Ҭ ᡡٮ Ѯ ѡҪ Ҭѡ. ƫ ӫߴ ԫ ӡ ѽ ߡߡ, ߼ ѺѮүү, ӫ ߿ ߼?[32].

Ҽ ߽ ߽, ߬ᡡ 1916 . ѻ߬ ǡӫ ѽ޿ ӫѼ ӫӫ.

 ޿ ӫ , ᡡ ߻үڿ ߫ ӿ ѺѮ ѡ Կ, ѽ ӫ߿ ߬ү ӯ 1917 .

ү ߽ߴ ѻ߬ ǡӫ Ѭ ѡү , ԫ, ߬ѡѼ ԫ 쿬 II Ҫѡ, ԫ޽ ߡ ߽, Ѻ, ԫ޿ , ߬ ӫ, 󽴯ߴ ӿӫ Ѯ ߵѼ.

ԫ ߬ ѻ߬ Ӽ߬ ǡӫ 5 1917 ߫-ѫѡ߬ ߫ Ӽ ӿ ӫ ѡ ӫ, , ߽ Ӫѡ ߬ ἫӪ: ?, Կ, ԫ ѡ ߽ ѪѼ Ἷ ߫Կ... , Ὣ Ӵ... ߴ ٽ ߽Ѻ Ѯ Ѯ ի󡫮 Կ. ӿ޿ ߯ Դ ӫ ѡ, Ҽ Կ ӫ, ѡү Ҽ Ἣ ӯ Ҽ Ѫ Ѭѡ ? ߽ Ѽ 󫮡, ԫ իԴ Ѽ ѽ ? ѽѡ, ԫ Ѽ Ҽ, Ҽ ԫ, ԫ ٽ ߻ ߫ ߴ߬ , ѺѴѽ, ߻, һѡ, ѡ, ԫ ߡԿ, Ӻ Ἷ ү ߬ ߬ ӫ. , ߼ѯߴ, ѽ, һ ߬ ӫ, ӫѼ ᡿... ԫ һѡ ӫ Ѯ ӫ߬ Ӽ. ԫ. ԫ ѡ : ӫԡ, ԫ ҽҽ , ү ѯ ѽѬ, ߡ , . ѽ ԫ, ԫ Ѭ ӫ ԫ ᡿ , ԫ ߬ ӫ Ѫ߫?[33].

ԡ ߴ ޿ ӫ Ե, ҪѮ Ѯ, ޡ ٽ, ѡ ? Ѽ Ҽ? ߻ү , Ѻ󫽿 Ѯ, ڡѮ Ѽ Կ߬ ѿԿ߬ ӫ ڡү ߼, ߽ ԫӫ ߬὿ Ѭ.

ӿ ߽ ĬԴ߬ ӫ 1917 ٽ Ѻ, , ԫ ѽ, ѡ .. ѡ, ?Ҽ ӫ?.

1917 ѻ߬ Ӽ߬ ǡӫ ūԡٮ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ ѡ ѡ 1917 ߴ 1918 ߿ ߬. ໿߬ ǡӫ 󽴽ߴ ѽѼ ѽ ѡ ѡ իѡ ٽ 񡿼 Կ ѡ , ԡ һ ᡿ ᡿ ӿү ԡү .

ѽ 1918 ٬ ߴ տѻ߬.

տ ߬ Ӵ 󴺿 ߫ Ѯ . Ӽ ӿի񿽿 ߽᡿, ԫ ѡ ὿ ӫ . ӿѺ Ӽ, ӫ ߽Ҫѡ ߫, ᡿ ԡ ի, һ ӫ񴼿, ӫӫ ѡ իѡ ѽ ѻտ.

11 ѽ 1918 ǡӫ Կߴ Ӽ ߽ 񡫮 ߿ . ӡ߬ ߬ Կ ? ٽڿ? ٽ ѡ. Ӽ߬ ѻտ ߫ ߿Ѽ ӫԿѮ ߬ᵿ Ӭ ߬ Ѽѽ. Ѽ 񡫮 ӫѮ ߫ ӿүڿ ߡ߫ѡ տѻ߬ ǡӫ ߬: ? ޿ Ӵ, ԫ Ӵ Ἣ ӿ , ԫ Ѻ һ, ӿ ӫ ᡫ Ӭ ?[34]. ٽ Իᡫ 550 ݬѼӫ ẫ߽ᡫ Ӽ߬ ѻտ ?߻Ӵѡ? տѻ߬ ǡӫ Ӭ ӫԿѮ .

տѻ߬ ٽ ѫᮡ ҽѡ ӫ. ߽Ҫѡ ߫ Ѯ ٽ ԫ, ԫ ? ٽ һ?. ӫ , ԫ ޡ ߫߬ү ?Ѯ?, ٽ ѫᮡ Ӭ, ѽ ݼ. , 26 ѽ 1918 , Ӽ ߫ԫߴ ѫᮡٮ ԡٮ ի տѼ. ߴ ߬ Ἷ ի󴼿 ޽ ޽ ӫ, ӫԴ޿ ߬ Ὣ.

䡿 տѻ߬ ٽ ߫ѡ. 16 ѽ ٽ ӫѡ ߬, ѮѼ Ѽ ٽ ѡ Ѻ ү ߿ ūԡ ߬. ӿ ƿի ỿ : ? , , ӫԡ, ߬ӫ ԫ?[35].

?Ī , ٬ ѽ ߻ իӫޫ. ߻ߴ ӿߴ ῡ, Խ ӫѡ, ӫԫ ߫ ԫӪѡ ߬, Ὣ ... 3 4 1918 Ӽ ߽ ԡٮ ӬѮ ҽѼԡ . 髫Ҫѡٮ Ӵ 󿬫 ԫ ߴ ѽѬ ѽ ԫӪ .. ߡ Ҫ տѮ߬ ?[36].

Ѽ ߫߬ ԫӿ߬ ٽ ѡ, ԫ ٬ ǡӫ ᡿ ѽ Ҫѡ ᡿ үڿ, ԫӫ ٽ ӫѡ ߡ Ѯ Ѯ Ѯ. ѮѽԿ տѮ߬ , իߴ ٬, ٽ ѡ, ? Ҫѡ ѽѬ!

ѽѼ ߴ ѡ ӿի߬ ߫ ߬ Ӭ Ѽ ӫ, Ӵ ỿߴ ԫӫ ԫѽ տѻ߬ ߫᡿ ԫӿ: ? ߽񡯯 ߬ѡ ѽ, ԫ 4 , տѻ߬ ᮡ ߽, ԫ ?߫ Կ? (Ӽ߬ Ѭ .. Ὤټ. ? ..) ӿ . ٬... Կ ԫ Կ ߻... ūԿ ߽ Ѽ 12 ߫ ߫ , ߿޿ Ѽ, ӿѪ ԫѽ տѮ߬ տӿ ѵ ի ӿҽ: ? ߬! 﫼ߴ !? <...> ѡ ߽ᡡ... ѡ ӿ ừߴ Ҫѡټ ԫ󿽿տ߬ , ԫ, ᬿ-ԫ ټ ӯԫ , ӫ߿ ԡ, ٬, ߡټ Ҫ ѽ ߬὿ (Ҫ Ὣ. ? ..)... ٬ ٽ . ի ѡ ԫ Ӭ . ´ ӿ. տѻ߬ Կ ߿ ߻ ӫ߫: ?ԫ ᬿ ԫ Ҫ?? ᮬ Կ, ԫ 񫽪 ӫԿ ߬. ū߽ ٮ ӫ: ? ԫ 񫽪 , . ?? ԫ ѽ ߻ӫ߿: ?ԫ տѻ߬ ǡӫ?? ??, ? Կ տѻ߬. ? 񫽪 ԫ?, ? ԫ. ?ƫ Ѽ 񫽪ѡ !? ? Կ տѻ߬ ߿. ᮬ ӿҽ: ? Ѭ ӿ, Ѽѡ Ѽ!?

<...> ӫ޽ Կ ߽ 󺽫 ի Ѯ, աѮ ԡ ߽ߴ ԫ . 顿 һ Կ޿... ԡ Ҫѡ ԫ, Ѽ , ߻߬ߴ һѡ տѻ߬ Ӽ߬ ǡӫ.

ٮ -ӫ Ӵ Ҭ, ߫ի Ҭ, ӫ Ѯ ի񬫮 ѽ ߼ տ... ġ ٽ ߻ѡ. ի ԡ ߬ һѡѮ, 񡴽 һ, ի 񡴽 Ҭ ߽ . ū߽񡿮 ӫ : ?ӫ, ߽!??[37].

տѮ߬ տѻ߬ ԫ ԫ Ѭ Ѻ ԫ󿽿 (١ ԫ󿽿տ߬ ᮫ Ӽ. ? ..), ޿὿ ᡿ ԫ󿽿տ߬ . Ѻ ѡ Կ Ӽ, ᡿ Ѭ, ߡ ߡѽ ޿὿, ᬪ ὿ Ԭߴ : ) ߻Ӵѡ Ӽ߬ ѻտ ߿ѡ Ӭ ߬ ; ) ᡫѡ ѡ߽Ҫѽ Ӽ ԫ󿽿տ ߫ѡ ߽Ҫѡ ߽ , տѻ߬ ǡӫ, (ԫ ٺὫ үڿ ߫߬ ).

ǡӫ Ӫ ԫ Ҫѡ. ӫԡ, , ѡѼ ߡ. Ԭߴ Լѡ ?߻Ӵѡ?, ?ūᡫѡ?.

Ҫѡ ѡ ٬ Ѽ ӫ߫ ѽ ߻᡿ Կѽ ѽ ߻, ѡ Ѭ .. : ?Ὤ (.. Ὤ ? ӿ ѽ Ӽ߬ Ѭ. ? ..) ӫ ѡ ѽ ӿ ӫ ǡӫ. ԫ ٽ ٮ , , ߽񡿮, ѡ ߡٮ .

ū ӿѡ Ὤ ǡӫ ᡴ ѽ ѡ ԫ. ġ ӫ, ԫ, ԫ ޿޿ ԫ-ԫ, ߡ ٮ , ӡҽ ޫ ѽٮ ٮ ԫ, ߫ ѡٮ ԫ, 񡴽ߴ ߽ , , ߬ ӿӡ : ? Ԭ, ӿѡ Ѫ Ἷ . ߽ ѡ ٽ ӫԿ󫻫ټ, , ѡѼ ߻ ӿ , ߽ ߿ Ѽ. ӫ ѡ ?. ūԫ ѽ, ߻ ӡҽ , ѽ ѯ, ߻ Կߴ ԫ ү ѽѬ?[38].

Ѭԫ ế ԫ, ԫ ӿ ߬ ǡӫ ٽ Ҫѡ ѡ ? Ҭѡ, , ѡ ޽ ߬ Ѯ.

? ٽ ӫ Ὣ! ѡ? ? ? ߻޿὿ Ѭ ӿ ߬ ѡ ´ ӿ. ? ߫ѫѡٮ ǡӫ Ѽ ѡ, ԫ ӫ߿: ѡ, , ԫӫ, Ӭ, ӫټ үڿ, ? ߡ ´ ӿ. .. Ὤ ߡ ߴ ԫ, ԫ ߴ Ὣ, ԫ տߴ ӿ ǡӫ ӿ 󫿼 ѡټ: ? ԫ ѽѬ! ѡ! , ԫ ߬, ߽ ߫!

ạ ѡѡ ǡӫ, 񿡫ߡ ߫᡿ ѡ Ѭ, 6 7 1918 ( ӿӿ߬ ѡӯ ? 20 ).

ạ Ӽ, ѡ Žҡ, ?ᵿ? ὿ ڡ ԫ󿽿տ Ҫ, Ѭ ӫ, ߬ ӫ, ѡ Žҡ, ?ߡ? Ѯ.

᡿ Ҽѡ ѽ ạ տѻ߬.

ӫ߬ Žҡ ߻: ? 󫡿 ѽ ԫӿ ӫ (үڿ ѽ Ѭ 󫽯Ѯ. ? ..), һ ѡ ԫԿ... [] ὿ , ѽ ǡӫ, ӡ Ѫ, ߫ Ἷ󬫮, ߫ի Ҭ, ѽ ޫ ԫԫ ѻ... Ҫ 쿬 ӫ߿ߴ ߫ ӿ իӫ ǡӫ. Ҫ տѼ ԫ, ߬ . ѽѡ (ῡ ӫ) 5 , ӡҽ ү ԫӫ . ὿ , ԫ [] , . ὿ տѯ, . ? ߴ ?. ǡӫ Ѻӫ 󺴽ߴ ߫ ѽ. ҡ Ѽ ߴ ѻ: ߡ . 諻 ޽ ѡ... 佴 ߬ѡ ѽ ӿ޽ . ӿӿ὿ , ߴ ǡӫ, ߬ Կߴ ߽ Ҭ . ӿ ӿӴ... ? ǡӫ . ѽ. Ҫ [] ѽ . ߽ Ὣ ǡӫ ҡ Ӵٮ ѡѼ ӫ ߿Ѯ ݼ, ѻ ԫ. ӫ իӫ ߴ. 髺 һѡ, ѡٮ ԫ, Ѫ὿ , ޽ Ҭ ԿѽѮ ... ԫ ٽ ۴ ѡ ӫټ. ѻ ǡӫ ӫ ߫?[39].

߫ѡ ?ӫ? տѻ߬ .. Ҫ, ޿ ߽ Ӽ߬ , ڡ ԫ󿽿տ. ѽ ạ ǡӫ .ѡ, .Ӭټ .諽ڿټ ѽ ԡԴ ԫ󿽿տ տѡ ѽ ´ ǽѬӫ ѬӴ .. 䪫߫. Ѯ ԫ Ѻ, ޿ ԫᡡ ǡӫ ᡿ ԫ󿽿տ߬ , ӫ ү- ޡү ạ ٬. ġ ӫ߿ߴ ? ԫӫ-Ѯ? ի Ѯ, ߡ Žҡ. ѡ Ҫ, Կ ҡ ( 󿬿 ԫ󿽿տ 1971 ὿ ԫү ? ??), 񽫪 Žҡ ӫ ᬫ ǡӫ ᪿ (ӫ ѽ ѽ὿ Ҫ ӫᡡ ѼѮ ǡӫ, ԫٮ, , Ҫ աҽߴ).

.. Ҫ ѽ: ? ... ὿ ߬ 5 , ӡҽ ү ԫӫ, ὿ ѡѮ ԫ, ᡫ󿽿 Ѯ. ӿ ǡӫ , ӿ Ѽ . ǡӫ ٬ ߬ ߴ (Ѯ [40]) ? Ѽ ὿. Ѽ ߬: ? ?. ӫԬ. ġ ٽ , ԫӫ , ӫԬ. ٽ ? ԫ. ?ѻ ߴ?. ޿. ġ ߴ ԫӫ 10, Ѽ . Ѽ ߬: ? ԫ?. ߬, ԫ ѽ , ټ ᬫ, ? ߡ ?ūᡫѡ??. ߬, ԫ ԫ ѽ ԫ, ?ԫ ѽ ӫԿ 󿬫?. Ѽ ӫ὿ ѼѮ, ӫѽ ߬ ѽ?[41].

, Ҫ, Խ Žҡ, ߴ ߬ ԫ, ԫ Ѭ ӿҽ ߬, ڡ ѽ ạ, ᬫ ѽѬ ᪿ. ġ ߡ : ߡ ӫ὿ ѼѮ, ߽ ѽ὿ ѽ, ԫ Ҫ 󽴽 ԫ Ӽټ ѽ, ӫ ѼѮ ԫ 5?10 , ԫ ѡ ѽѬ Ҫ Դѽ ѡ ߫ Ѽ ἡ ? ѻ-ү , ѽ ѽѮ, ѽ , Ѯ Ҭ , ѡ, ѽѺѡ ѡ ᡫ. ԫ Ѻ 5?10 ѽѬ իߴ Ҫ Ѻ ߫᡿ ѬԿ ѽ Ѯ .

ᬿ ӫԿ ޡ ạ, Ѭڿ ߬ẫ ԡ ? ߡӼѮ. Ӽ߬ ?ѡ ɫ߿? 1919 ߫: ?ū ѯڿߴ ѡ, ԡٮ , տѻ߬ ǡӫ, ٽ ᬫ ټ Ѽ. ӫ , ԫ, ٬ ٽ ѡ ѼѮ ԫ ߴ, ӿүڿ ߡӼѮ Ҽ ѽἿ ?[42].

Ӵ Ӽ, ӫѼ Ӽ߬ ѻտ ߫ѫѡѮ ӫ , ԫѼ Ѽѡ ѡ ԫ ѡ߬ տѻ߬ ǡӫ. ġ իߴ 5 ῡ Ӽ ᡿ 1918 (ӫ , ١ .). ԡ ߬ ԫ Ѽ ӫ ӫѺ ҽ ӫ . (ԫ) ҽ, ѡ ѽ, ߻ߴ ѽѡٮ ӫ ( ӡἿ) Ѫ ԫ󫬺Ὣ ެ 94. ԫ ѡѮ (200 ) ҽ ӫ (߬ ), ԫ , իߴ ԫ ѡ߬ տѻ߬ ǡӫ.

ԫ ԫ 󫿼 Դ Ҭ ߽ᮡٮ ѽ ạ տѴ, ӫի޿ . ū ԫ߬ ӿѡԿ ߫ ᡴڿߴ տ ѽ Ҫ Žҡ.

Ӽ߬ ѻտѮ ᡫѡ ѽѡٮ ἴԡٮ ѡѡ, ߿󫽿үڿ Կѽ ǡӫ. ᡫ:

?ٮ ѡѡ ǡӫ, , Ѽ Ѽ ?.

, 7/20 , ѡ ѽ Կѽ, ԫ ӫѽ Կ޿, ԫ ѽѡ Ѭ Һ, Ү ӫ߽ ߿. ū ԫӫ ѡ ޿ ѡ ҡٽ Ӽ߬ 񫼫, ެ 񿫡 Խ Կ, 400 ԫ, , Ѻԡ ެ ߴ.

Ѭ ѡ ԫ ѽٮ , ὿ ڿ Ѭԫ, ạ ߽ ѽѬ ѽ ԫ ѡѡ 񫡫߿ Ԭ-ԫ Ѽ.

ԫ ߼. һ ӫ. ԫ ѡ 񡿼Ὣ ӫ ߫. Ѭ ߡӼѮ Ѻ὿ ߬ , ѽټ Ἷ, ڿߴ . ԫ Ҫ Žҡ ߻ӿ, ѽ ڿ ạѡ. տѻ߬ ߽ ԫ Ѻ, ѡ ѻ Ѭ ӫ ߫.

ѽ ѡ ѬἿ ѽѬ ѪὫ ߽Ѽ Ѽ ߡ . Ҫ ټ ѽ, ӫټ , ѡټ ѡ ߫Ѽ. -ԫ , ߡ ߫, Ҫ ѽ ߬ Կ. ӿԫ ߻ӫ ѡѡ ߻߬ Ҭ, ǡӫ, Ӭ, ߫, , Ѭߡ ӫ- .

Ѯټ տѮ߬ ӫ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ 2000 տѻ߬ Ӽ߬ ǡӫ ٽ ӫ߽ѡ ѡ ߻񡿬 ӫ߿߬ ѵӬ ᡿.

ἴ ߫ߴ 7/20 .

߽ Ѯ տѻ߬ ǡӫ ߴ ѡ Ѽ տ߬ 󫿼 ӫ. Ӭ 񡫮 , 󫿼 ѡ߬ Ѽ ѻ ӫ ߻᡿ ӿԫ.

Ѻ ạ, 5 1918 , տѻ߬ ǡӫ ỿ ӫӫ߬ ߽[43], ѡ : ? ѡ Ѫ ѡ, ԫ ɫ߿ ߬ߡ ߫ 󫿼 ѡѼ ?, ?߬ߡ ӫ, ߬ߡ ѽ ? ӫ ѡ?.

[1] ߬ ѡӯ ( ӫ Կ). [2] ѡѡ ǡӫ (쿬߬; 1870?1918), տѻ߬ Ӽ߬. ѡ: 2 . . 1: Ԭ. : ҽ, 2004. . 110. ( ߫ѡ: . ǡӫ. ѡ. . 1.) [3] . . 97. [4] տѻ߬ ǡӫ. Ӭ, ɫ߿: 潫, ѽ ѡѡ ǡӫ (쿬߬), տѻ߬ Ӽ߬ ҡ߬, 1898?1918 / . .. ӫ. Ӵ: Ҫ ?߽. Ὣ?, 1997. . 129. ( ߫ѡ: ǡӫ. Ӭ, ɫ߿.) [5] ǡӫ. Ӭ, ɫ߿. . 129?130. [6] . . 36?37. [7] ǡӫ. Ӭ, ɫ߿. . 144?146. [8] ໿߬ ǡӫ. ӿԫ // ļ߬ ѻտ 񫼫Կ. 1914. 16. . 37?41. [9] ѡѡ ǡӫ (쿬߬; 1870?1918), տѻ߬ Ӽ߬. ѡ: 2 . . 2: ӫ, ѡ, ߽᡿. : ҽ, 2004. . 192?193. ( ߫ѡ: . ǡӫ. ѡ. . 2.) [10] . ǡӫ. ѡ. . 2.. . 195?196. [11] ߬ ѻտ 񫼫Կ. 1901. 2. . 84?92. [12] ǡӫ. Ӭ, ɫ߿. . 9?10. [13] ǡӫ. Ӭ, ɫ߿. . 11?12. [14] . . 12. [15] ǡӫ. Ӭ, ɫ߿. . 3. [16] . . 3?4. [17] . ǡӫ. ѡ. . 2. . 172?173. [18] . . 174. [19] . . 174?175. [20] տӿ ߬ (ӽ߬). ٽڿ: Կ ѡѡ ǡӫ (쿬߬), տѻ߬ Ӽ߬ ҡ߬. 諺ѽ߬: ѡ߬ ӫٮ Ҫ߬ ĻԿ ١, 2019. . 111. ( ߫ѡ: ߬.) [21] Ὣ ѽ ( ӫ) 󫮡 쿬 II ѽ ի ᬫ. [22] (. տ Ӽ߬ ). . 664. Ļ. 1. . 7. . 191 ? 192 . [23] ߬. . 111. [24] .. Ѽ ? ѿ ᡿ ǽѬѴ 쿬 ɫᡫ // ԡ տ ѡ .. Ѭ. 2014. . 173, 3. . 98?102. [25] ໿߬ ǡӫ. ߬ӡ-ӡ ߽ // Ӽ߬ ѻտ 񫼫Կ. 1916. 8/9. . 203?205. [26] . ǡӫ. ѡ. . 2. . 152. [27] . . 153. [28] ໿߬ ǡӫ. Կ ߿ ߬ // ļ߬ ѻտ 񫼫Կ. 1914. 4. . 4?6. [29] ߬. . 117. [30] 諽 (). 1915, 17 Ӵ. 2856. [31] (ѡٮ տ ). . 550. Ļ. 1. . 23. . 139 ? 140 . [32] . ǡӫ. ѡ. . 2. . 321?322. [33] . . 550. Ļ. 1. . 96. . 2?7. [34] ԡ ļ߬ Ӭ (). 1919, 1?15 . 5/6. . 3. [35] . .-1780. . 17. . 359. [36] ӫ .. ӫԿ : 忺ѫ᡿ տѻ߬ Ӽ߬ ǡӫ Ҽѡ. .: Ҫ ?߽. Ὣ?, 2013. . 618?620. [37] ѡ ɫ߿ (). 1919, 25 Ӵ. 19. . 2?3. [38] .. Ѫԫ. Ӽ: Ӽ. . -, 1968. . 192. [39] (ѡٮ տ Ӽ߬ ). .-732. Ļ. 1. . 298. 3 / .ѡ ? Ӽ, .ӫ ? ѡ Ѭ. [40] ߴ ?6 Ѯ ޿?, ԫ 1,07 . [41] . .-732. Ļ. 1. . 140. . 2?3. [42] ѡ ɫ߿. 1919, 2 Ӵ. . 2. [43] . ǡӫ. ѡ. . 2. . 451?452.