ѡѡ (Ἣ), տѻ߬ ߬ - ӿ Ҽѡ ƫ߬ Ҫ߬
ᬫ 쿬,
߫񡿬 -߽ѽ߬ ѽ
ѮѮ ԫӿ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ
31 2020. -- 140 ߫ ӫѡ տѻ߬ Ἣ

Լ 700-Կ ӫ߽߬ ƫ߬ ?Ӵ, Ѻ١ߡ Կߴ Ѽѡ 100-ԡѮ Կ, ߴ 600-ԡ Ѯ Ӵ. ԫ Ѽ ԡ Ӵ ٽ Ҽѡ (Ἣ), ?ڿ տѻ߬ ߬, ޿ ߽ ӿ ѻ ӿ߽ѡٮ ѡ. ӫ, ԫ Ҽѡ 󽴽 ӿ? 4,5 , 1910 . ѡԴ 1915 .

ѡ ԡ Կ ѡѡ ? ԫ ӿ ӿߴ ߫Ѽ Ѽ, ᡿ Ѭ[1]. ᡡ ߻ ?ӿ ѡ տ ӫ߽߬ Կ, ӫ߽߬ ƫ߬ Ӵ 245, ԫӫ ߫᡿ ӿӡ 50 񿡿 ѡ (ѽ) Ҽѡԫ Ҭᡡ ӿ? ѴѽԿ Ӵ. ᬪ ߻ ӿ?߬ ᡿ , ѡ ?ӫ߽߬ տ 񫼫Ѯ? ӫ߽߬ ?⫽?. ᪡ ԫ ? ᡴ Ѯ ᡿ 1913 . ?ӫ߽߬ 󫬽?ٮ ƫ߬ . ԫӿ-ԿԿ߬ Ӭ. 1314- 1914?[2].

ڿ տѻ߬ (濼ѫ 쿬 Ἣ) ӫߴ 19 1880 .[3] 1902 . ᡿ ū߬ ի󡫮 Ѽӿ ٽ ӫ ǽ߬-ǽ߬߬ү ѻտ, ԫӫ ԫ Ѽ ԫ ڿ ӿ ѻ߬ ƿի (ѽ). ѻѽѼ ߿߬ ެ ߡ . ެ[4], ԫ . Ԭ[5], 濼ѫ Ἣ ӫի ߽Ҫѡ. 1905 . ѻ߬ ǽ?߬߬ ꡡѡԿѼ (١߬)[6] ٽ ӿѡ ? ѡѼ ߬ ѡ ӫᬫ. 1906 . Ҭѡ ӫ, ߽ ạѡ Ѭ߬[7] ӿի Ѭ߬ ի󡫮 ߿. ԼԿ, ԫ Կѽ ƿի ѡ ӫ ? ԡ Ҽѽ ߿. 1907 . տѻ߬ ƿի Ѻ ɫ߿ ӫ߽߬ү [8], ߽ 1908 . ߴ ɫ ӫ .

1909 . ӫ ӫ񫽪 ߽Ҫѡ ?߿ ߬ ѻտ. 13 ѽ 1910 .[9] ѵ ? ٽ ạѡ . ԡ -߬ Ӵ, ᬫ ӿ һѡ Ѽ , -񿼫, ߻ѽ[10].

Ѽ ߬ӫ, 29 ѽ 1910 , ߬ߴ ԡ ӫ?߬ ƫ߬ Ҫ߬ Ӵ տӿ ūӿ (ҽᬫ)[11]. ԫѽ Ӵ ߫ѫѡٮ ƿի (ѽ), տѻ߬ ӫ߽߬, ạ Ѽѡ һ?ڿ Ѽ ạѴ ӫ ߿, ԫٮ, ?ᬫ, ٽ ߬ѡ һ Ѽ, Ԭߴ ạѮ[12].

髻ӫ ԡ ٽ ѡ Ѽ, ԫ Ѻ ?߬ ԫ ԼԿ ᪡Ѯ޿ Ѯ Ѯ ӫ߽߬ Ѽ - 600-Կ ƫ߬ Ӵ. ԫ ӫ ѽ . , ڿ ԡ, ޿ տ?ӿ ūӿ ѽ ү ԫѼ ?ѽ , ӫ󽴴 ߫ү Ѫ, ߫ᡴ Ѫѡ Ѽ Ӵ[13]. 񿼫, իӫޫ Ǽӿ߬ ѻտ ߻ޡ ԡ ߽Ҫѡ ӫ (Ἣ), տ?ѻ߬ ƿի ѡ , , ߽񡿮 ӫ߿ߴ տ߬ Ҭ. ߴ ߽, ߼Ӵ Ҫ ߫޿ߴ ạѡ . , տ?ѻ߬ ƿի Ҽѽ ߴ 濡 ạѡ ӫ үߴ 񫽪 ԡ ƫ߬ 󫬽ߡ Ӵ.

ạѡ ߫ԫ ѺѮ տѻ߬ ƿի 23 1910 .[14] ᬫ ᡡԿ ? ӫ ӿ ߬ , Ѽ Ӵ ߽үڿ Ҽѡ. 񡫮 ԫӫ, ߫᡿޿ߴ ?ѡ 13 ѺѮ տѻ߬ ƿի ٽ ѡ ạѯ Ӵ ӫ ߿, ߻Ѽ ?ᡡԿ Ӵ[15]. ԫӫ, Ҫ 28 տѻ߬ ƿի Ὣ ԫ ѡ ?ӫ ƫ߬ Ӵ Ѯ ѺѮ ?ԡ ƫ߬ Ӵ ӫ . Ӫ? Ὣ ߫ԫ ԫ, ԫ ӿ ѡ ƫ߬ Ѯ ӿ ӫ߽߬ һ . . ӫ ԫ ӫ Ӽ ӿ Ѯ ѽ ѡ, Ѽ ߬ ߽. Ҽѡ, ߻ѡ Ѻ, ӫ ߡ ѽ ӫ?󿡿Ѽߴ ѡ , ԫ Ѻ ?ߴ һ ӫ, Ѻҽ Ҭᡡٮ ӫ ӿ ӫ ӫ߿ ӫѡ һ ӫ[16]. ߯ , ԫ ӫ Ѯ ԫ ߿ᵿ Ҫ ӿᡡٮ ԡ Ӵ. ᬿ ẫ, -ԫ ӫѪԫ Ѫ 13 28 ٮ ԡ ӫ ? (Ἣ) ӿٽ ƫ߬ .

9 , Կ ߽ ạѡ ӫ , տѻ߬ ƿի ӿѺ ƫ߬  ?ѡ[17]. ԼԿ, ԫ ƫ߬ իߴ Կ ѡ . 髽 ӫ߽, ?ټ ټ ߻߫ ߴ ٽ ӫի. ū Ѯ 񿼫Կ, ԫ ٽ ѡ տ?ѻ߬ ƿի ƫ߬ Ӵ ӿ ԡ, ӫԡ ѡ ԫ տѻ߬ ƿի Ե ? ӫ ԫ ѡ᡿ 600-ԡ Ѵ Ӵ[18].

ū ӿѺ ӫ߽ ӫ ᡫ?ߴ ӫ߬ իѡ ԫ ߽Ҫ տѻ߬ ƿի ޿ Ӭ ԫӪ ӫ߽߬ ѻտ. , ԫ 1910 , 񡿬 ƫ߬ Ѯ ӿ, ӫ ߽үڿ ߽Ҫѡ: 7-8 ? ѡ 300-Կ ߬ ѡ߬ Ӵ . ӫ߽; 19-20 ? 50-Կ ߡ? ߬ ѡ߬ Ӵ . ߬; 5-6 - 񡿬 ѫѡ ߻ ߫-ѫѡ߬ ?; 18-19 ѡԴӴ ѡ ἴԿ ӫ߽߬ ӵ ѫ, 諡Կ; 21- ԴӴ, ѡ ԫ Ӵ 꼻ԫ 쿬 ǽѬӫ[19]. ƫ ӫ񫽪Ὣ ߽үڿ ᡿ տѻ߬ ƿի ӫ߽߬ [20].

ԡ ӫ Ὣ ѡ Ӵ ӿ Ἣ Կ Ӵ. ߬ Ҭᡡ Ὣ ߽ Ὣ 2- 1910 . Ѻ ӫ ƫ߬ Ӵ, ѻ ?Ѽߴ ӿ ԫ, ԫ Կ . ӿ޽ ѽ 񫺡᡿, Կ ѡ߽Ҫѡ, Ѻ Ѭԫӫ Ѽ ٽ Իѡ ߬ [21] ߻ѡ[22]. ӫ, ѡ ߫?ѽ ߫ԫ ټ, ӿ޽ ᡿ 񫽪Կ ڿ, Ἣ 10 Ѯ Ӵ[23]. ᬪ ѵ ԡ ٽ ١Ҫѡ ӫԿ ?߽᡿ Ѯ ԫ һ ի ƫ߬ Ӵ. Ὣ , ᬫ Կ ի ѽ὿ ޿. ẫӡ ѡ ӿ޽ Ի ߬ ? ӡ ѡѼ ߿ Ӵ Ҭ[24]. ԫ ѽὫ ߫߫᡿ ߻Ӵѡ ߫?ѡ ƿի.

髺޿ ԫ Կ ѵ ߴ ߬ ߻. ߫᡿޿ߴ Ҭẫ ӫ߽?߬ ի󡫮 諡߿ԫӿ 1910-1915 ., ? Ե ٽ Ҭѡ Կ ?Ѯ 4 ӫ, ӿ ӫ, ӿѡ 7 ի, ӿҬѡ[25] 5 ߽ޡ , ԫ իߴ ߻᡿. ӫ ԫ, 1912 . ѡ ạѮ ߬ ߻ѡ߬ ѽԿ Ӵ ӫ 滿ӿ, ԫٮ 1913 . ٽ ạѡ ạѼ Ҫ ƫ߬ Ӵ.

ū ի ԡ үڿ ƫ߬ ?Ӵ . ߬ ᡫߴ ӫ ɫԫ߬ ӫ-ӡ Ӵ ǻӿ[26]. Ὣ Ԭ Ѭԫټ ӫ߿ѽ Կ ƫ߬ Ӵ ѿѡѼ [27].

1913 ٽ 35 ѽѬ Կ: ԡ, ạѮ, ի󡿬, үڿ Ѽ . ߬, ɿ?, 10 Ӵ ӫի, 7 ӫ, 5 ի 8 ?߽ޡ. ӫ ԫ 35 ѽѬ ߽ޡ ߻᡿. 70 ѽѬ[28]. 1915 ի Ҽѡ ᡫѡ 񫽪 ݬ Ӵ, ԫ ٽ Լѡѡ, ᡡԿ Ѽٮ 񡿬 Ӵ[29].

Ἣ ԡ ӫ 󺴽ߴ ӫ ѽ. , Ҫ 1910 . ѵ ߴ ѡ ӿԿ ߿ Ҫ ߡ ԫӫ 󡿬 Ӵ[30]. Դ ԫ ߽ѡ տѻ߬ ƿի ӫѡ ѽ ߫ѡ ԫ ? Ѻү һ[31]. ƫ ԡ, ԫ 1913 ƫ߬ Ҫ Կ ᡿ 񡿼 ѽټ ỻ?ԫ[32]. 1914 Ӵ ѽ 󫡬 ٽ Ѽ ӿ ѡ , 󫺡 ߡ [33] Ӵ[34]. ѵ ӿѽ Ӵ ?߬ү ӿ ߫ ټ Ἷ, ӿѼ ӫ߬ ߿ ѽ᡿ 1912 ., ߼, ӿ ӿ Ѯ Ѽ ạ?ѡ[35]. 1913 ٽ ӫѡ ߼ ߡ Ӵ ߡ ߫᡿ѽ ӫ߽߬ ӡ. ߡ ѽ ᡿ Ӽӫ᡿ ᡿ Ԭ ? 񡴬, ᬪ ߻[36].

Ἤ ԫ ѯ 1911 . ὿ ޿ ?ԡ . ߬ Ӭ ٽ ѡ ѡ Ҫ ѡ, ѡٮ ѡѡ ?ټ, ᡫ ѡ , Ѭѡ Ѫ һ ? ὯѼ. ԫ ٽ ѡ Ҫ ?߬ ԡ 쿬߬ Ӭ, ᬪ ᡫ ٺѡ һ. ߫ ѡ Ἷ ӫ? , ѡ ѡ ߬ ߻ 󫻿. ūѡ , һ ѽѺ ѡ. ٽ ӿӫ 󫻿 ټ Ἷ. ߴ ӫ ٽ ѽ? ѡ[37].

ҡ ᡿ ƫ߬ Ѯ ӿ 7 ? 1911 . Ὣ ѡ տѻ߬ ƿ?ի ߫޿ ѡ ԫ ѻ Ѽ 髺ѡ ԡ Ӵ ߻[38].

1912 . ի ᵿټ ? ԡټ ӫ߿ټ. ӫ տѻ?߬ ƿի Ѯ޿ 濡 ޿ ӫԿ Ѽ Ἣ Ӵ ի᡿Ѽ Ѯ ߬ 24384 .[39] ѡ߬ ߫ ƫ߬? Ӵ ٽ ӫѡ ӫ , ٽ ѡ Ѻ . ӿѽ Ѯ , 諡Կ ӫ߽߬ ӵ ٽ ӫ ѡ , ?ӿӫ Ӭ ѡ ӿ ի Կ, ӿ ԫ ٽ ᡫѡ Ԭ޿ߴ ӫ ߬ 󡿮 ӡѡ.

ѻ 髺ѡ߬ Ӭ ٽ ѡ 󫻿 ?ӿ , ӫᡫ 40 ѡ, Ѻѡ . ޿ѡ ƫ߬ ӿѽ ӿ?٬ Ѽ ӿ, ٽѡ ѽѺټ Ἷ[40]. ԫӫ Ԭ, ߽ ߻ѡ Ԭ ӫ?Ѭ, Ҽѡ ӫѬ ӫ ٽ ѻү Ӭ Ӵ 꼻ԫ߬ ѫ߬ 諼߿, ߽ ӫ. ӫѽ ޽ , ޿ߴ ԡ տӿ ūӿ[41]. ӫ񿽿 ѡѼ Ѽ ѡ 꼻ԫ߬ ѫ߬ 諼߿ ? ԡ .. [42].

ٽ ӫѡ Ѽ Ӭ󡫮 ӿ Ӵ, ѽ? ѡ , ԫ, ᡿տ񡿬 ѽ; ٽ ᡿ ӫ ԿѬ Ѯ[43]. ?ӫ߽߬ ѻտ ?񫼫Դ? իѡ ѻտ ѡ᡿ Ӵ? Ѵ ӿ὿ ߫Ҫѡ ӫ? ᬿ ߡѽ Ӵ Կѽ ӿ[44].

ӫ ӿѬߴ ѻտ Ѵ?ѽԿ. ߡ 1912 . ӫ߽߬ ߽ ߿߬ ߻ѵ ѡ ѽ տѻ߬ ƿի ӫ߿ ?ӿ? ᡿ Ѯѽ ѡ ӫ߽߬ ? ߽ ߿߬ ӿ Կ ѡ ?[45]. 11 1912 . ӫ ٽ ѡ Ҽѡ[46].

1913 . ƫ߬ ѡ Ѽӫ Ѽѽ Կ ߴԿ ѡ Ѽ ߫ ӫ ?ߡٮ ? ԫ Ӵ 4000 Ѯ ѡ߬ ?߬ 󴡡 ᡿ ӫ ެ ѽ ӫ . 1910 . ừ ӫ? ԫ ѯ տѻ߬ ƿի ߽үү Ѻ: ?իӫޫ ٽ ӿ ӫ ᬫ- ӿѽ-ӫԿѽ߬ Ѫ?ѡ, ӫ, ӿ, ӿ Ѽ߽ѡټ Ἷ?. ߿ ѻ ٽ ѡ ὿ᵿ ԫ? ߽. ѡ 񻫽Ὣ սԡ Կ߬? ᡴԿ ѡѼ Ѽ߽ѡټ ٬[47].

1913 ӫի񿽫 ᡿ 300-Կ ɫᡫ?, Ἤ ԫӫ ᡿ӫ Ѻ 꼻ԫ ѮѮ Ѽ ӫ ɫ߿, ԫ ߽ ӫ߽. 󴺿 Ѽ Ὣ ѡ 꼿 ƫ߬ Ӵ.

ԫ Ѽѡ ٽ Ҫ իӫޫ ӿӫ, ԫ ѽߡѪ ӫ Ӵ, ߿Ѽ һ ԫ, 󽴽 ѫ٬ѡ ߿ٮ [48]. ӫ-񡫮 ԫӫ Ӵ իߴ , ԫٮ, ԫ, 󽴽 Ӵ. ߬ ӿ?Ѻ ԫ ٽ ٻ, ѡ ԡ[49].

ԫ ߴ ӿѺ 꼻ԫ߬ Ѽ ? ٽ ѽѡ ߫񡿬 Ӽӿ, ӫᡡٮ ѡ ߽Ҫ . ӫ Ẽѡ ӿ޽ ӫ߽߬ ӡ߬ Ӽ߬ ѡ ӿ ?ѡ-Ѭԡ?. ԡ Ӵ ὿ ߫ ߻߫ , ԫ ӿ Ѽ ѡ[50].

21 1913 . 꼻ԫ߬ ѽ ѮѮ ѼѮ Կ ӫ ӫ߽ ƫ߬ . ի?ѡ ӿѪ Ἣ, ߻ѡ Ѫ ӫ Ѽ ѿ ԫӫ Ѭ 髽, ի񿽫 ?ѡ ի󴼿 Ѭ ߻ѵ ᡡټ Ӭ, Ҭѡټ Ἷ, ӿ ѡ ߬ ӫի ѡ ԫ Ѯ޿ ߫[51].

ӿ᡿ ƫ߬ Ӵ ӿ ӫի ??ԡ Ҽѡ ѽ ế 꼻ԫ߬ ѽ 󽴯ڿ ƫ߬ү ѽ ӡᡡ߬ ӫ߿ Կ Խ ѡѼ ƫ߬ү ѽ?, - ӿ ừ ?ѡ Ӵ ԫ߬ ѽ. Ἣ ? Ѯү Ѽ տѻ߬ ƿի ?ԿѮ Ӵ. ū߽ Ԭ Ҽѡ ?ѽ ۴ߡѡ ԫӿ Ӵ ѡ ?󫻿߿?. ū߼ ӿ, Ի󿽿 ӫү ӫ, ԫ ӫѽ Խѡ 󫿼 ټ ߫?, Ἷ. ?ӿ ӫ᡿ ӫ ӫڿ ? 꼻ԫ, 󫽿 Կ ӿ ?ế, ԫ ѽ ߽὿ ƫ߬ իѽ Կ , ѻ ٽ ӿԡ ӫԿ ԫ Ѽ?[52].

ū 꼻ԫ 쿬 II ӿ߽ ѽἼ, ԫӫ 꼻ӿѮ ӿ ٬ Կ ƫ߬ Ӵ ѡ ѽ᡿ 쿼 Ѯ Ѽ: ? ߬ѡѮ ߻Ѽ ѡ Ἷ ԫ ?ѽ?, - 꼻ԫ[53].

ἴ ԫ ԡ ߫Կ ƫ߬ ѽ ӫ? -߫ ӿ ԫѮߴ ԬԿ ެ ѽ? ӫ, ѡٮ ߡ ūӫѽ ߽񡿬 ѽ 衴 ǽѬѴ 쿬 - Կѽ ǽѬ߿ ߬߬. 29 ѡԴӴ 1913 . ӫ޽ ԫ?ѡ ԬԿ ެ, ԫӫ ٽ ѡᡫ ?Ѽ -߫. ū߽ ߫ѡ ѡ ƫ߬ ԫӪѡٮ ԡٮ ի ҽߴ ԫӫ ެ, Ҫ ὿ տѻ߬ ƿի ѻ߬ ߬ 濽 (ԫ߬). ū߽ ߫ѡ ? ٽ ӫѡ Կ 꼻ԫ Ѽ ?Ѽ , ѵ ԡ Կߴ ߫Ѽߴ ?ޫ ӫ ۴ߡѡѼ ѡ ӫ ߫Կ. ѽ ӫ ߫ ԫӡټ, ԫӡټ Ӻټ ٽ Ԭ ƫ߬ Ӵ ӿѽѮ ӫ ӫ߽. ạ Ѯ ԡ ѽѡ ٽ ? ѡ 25 , ӿ ެ ѽߴ ӿ[54].

1913. ٽ ѼԿӫ ᡡӿٮ - Կ? Ὣ, ߻ѡٮ ӡ ԫӫ Ӵ. Ѽ ӫѡ 5000 Ѯ, ᡡ ѯ տѻ߬ ƿի[55]. ߡѽٮ Ѽ ӫ?ѡ . ߬ ӫ߽[56]. 9 ԴӴ 1913 . տѻ߬ ƿի Ὣ ѡ ? ߬ ƫ߬ ߫ ѡ ӫѡ ӿѽ [57]. ѯ Ҭ? Ҽѡ 伿ӿѼ ӽټ ٽ ߫ѡ ԫӿ-ԿԿ߬ Ӭ 172 ᡿ ԫ: ?ӫ߽߬ 󫬽ߡٮ ƫ߬ . 1314-1914?[58].

1914 . ߴ ޿ Ѽѡ ӫ߽߬ Ӭ. 2 ?Ӵ 1914 . Ҭẫ Ѯ 濡 տѻ߬ ƿի ?ߴ ԫ߬ү , ԫ߬ ӫ?߽߬ү ߴ ӫ ѽ (ѫѡ߬)[59]. ҡ Ѻ 19 Ӵ տѻ߬ ƿի ߽Ҫ ӫ?ү , ԫӫ Ѽ ߽߫Ҫ Ҽѡ [60]. ūԿ ӿ ѵ ߴ Ҭ ߫?ѫѡ ƿի, 󽴴 ߽߫ҪѼ ?ڡ. ū ߽᡿ ԫѽ ƫ?߬ Ӵ ԫ ѯ, Ҽѡ , , 󻫽 ӿ տӴ. Ѽ ߬ӫ, 5 ὴ, Ҽѡ ߫ ӫ߽?߬ իѡ 󫬺 ӫ߽߬ տ?Ѵ տѻ߬ ѽ (ѫѡ߬)[61], 󽴽ߴ ټ ԫѽѼ ƫ߬ Ӵ.

ټ ߫ԿѼ 1914 ƫ߬ ٽ ?ԫ ᡿ Ѵ Ӵ. 񡿬 ? ƫ߬ Ѯ ӿ, ?ƫ ѡ?, -ӫԫ ὿ ӫ, Լߴ 8 ӫ񫽪ߴ , 9 10 ߽. , ޿ 󫺼Կ ӿ 񡿬, ߽Ѯߴ 񿵿 ӿ?Ѻ ߽ 񡿬 ߬ѡ. Կ ?ӫի Ἳ᡿ ὿ ߻ѵ Ѯ, ԫ 󽴽 ӫ߽.

7- ӫ ߫ ӡ ѡ ƫ߬ Ѯ ӿ. 6 ߫ ߴ ? ѡڡ, ԫ ԫ 10 . Ẽ὿ Կ, ޿ӫ ԫ?ӫ Դ ѡ߬ ߫ ӿ, ӫѡ ߫ ѻٮ ԫѡ߬ . 5 7 ? ὿ ᡡ ѡ߬ ԫѡ߬ , ѻ ڿߴ. 8 ߻ѵ ӫի ӿ ԡٮ ի ӫ ӫ? Կ ԫӪѡ ߬ ԡ ի ѽ, ԫٮ ߫ߴ ߽ ԡ .

10 ߫ ߴ Ѯ , ?ԫ ߫ ߫ ԫӪѡ տѻ߬ ӫ߽߬ ߽߫Ҫѡ ӫ߬ իѡ Ѯ Կ Ӵ. ӿ὿ ޿ ߬ Կ, ѡ ӫ߽ ? ӫ, ԫ ߴ ߬ , ᬪ ӫ Ѽ ӫ ߫ ԫӫ Ѭ 髽. ū߽ Ѯ ߫?ߴ ѡ Ѯ ӿ, ߽ ӫ߽߬ տ?ѻ߬ ߽󽴽 ԡٮ ի ѡ ӫ?[62]. ū ᡿ ߽Ҫ ӫ Ѽߴ ӫٮ . ѽڿ ߻ԡ ὿ ߬ ս [63].

ԫӫ ѡ 񡿬 ߽ Ѯ ߫? ԫӪѡ ᡿տ ߡѽ Ӵ Կ? ӿ. 񿵿 Ӭ Ѽѡ Կ ԫѽ[64].

ū Ӭ ᡿ Կ ߫ӫ὿ ?ӫټ ҽ, ӫ ԫ ӿѺ὿ ӫԫ ѽ ӫԿ Ѽ, ҽ ӿӫ. ӿ᡿ ?߬ ѡἿ ߻Ὣ ԫ ԫ. ? ᮡټ ԬἿ ߴ . ū Ѽ ѽߴ Ἣӡٮ ټ. ա ԡټ ߽ Ӵڿߴ Ѭ. Կ ƫ. ԫ: ߫ ߽Դ, ԫټ ԫ ѽ, ԫ , - ӫ? ެἿ, ҽἿ, , Ἷ ӫ ҬἿ, Ӵټ ټ Ἷ; ԫ ѽѬ ߻? Ѽ: Ἷ, Ἷ, ѻὫ, 󿡫? ..?, - ὿ ԫ Ѽ ӫ߽߬ ?⫽?.

߫Ѯ ٽ ӫѡ ѽ, Ԭ 񫡫߿ Ҭ Ӽ [65].

ūԫ ᡿ 600-Կ Ӵ ӫ Ѽ ӫ, ԿѼ Ӭ ߬ ߿ ӫ߽?߬ ӡ. ѫѡټ 濽ӫ, ѻ߬? ߬, ٽ ߫ ߻ѵٮ ԫ ԫӪ. 28 ѡ 諼, ӿ޿ ?᡿, Ҽѡ ƫ߬ Ӵ ߽ߴ ԫ ԫ . ġ ѽ ߻ѽү 諼߿, ԫ 񫽪 ٽ ԫ Ӵ ӫ߫ Ҫѡ ߽?ڿ ᡿ 諼 ӿԿ ߻ѡ ١ѡ ѡ[66].

߫᡿ 諼 ٽ ѡ ߽ү: ӫ ӿ Ѻѡԫ , ٮ 60 ԡ ѡѮ Ẽѡ Ὣ ; ԫ ߻ԡ ӫ Ậ, ӫޯ Ԭ ի ߫Ӫ?; ӿ߿ 300 Ҫ 櫯 ߬ ӫ ѡ Ӵ񬫼 , ߻ѽѡ ս Ԭ; ᡫ 200 ѡ ԫ Ẽѡ ԫѬ ս , Ẽ?ѡ ѡ Ҫ .; , Ẽѡ ԫӫ Ѽ 񡿬 ٽ Ѫ񡫮 ? ԡ, ѽ ߻ѵٮ Ѫӡٮ ӫի ߫Ὣ 󫺬 [67].

߬ Կ һѡ ɫ߿ 󫮡 ѽ Ѵ Ӵ߽ ӫ߽. ӫ 󫮡. 30 ӫ ӫի߬ իԡ ӫ? ƫ߬ Ӵ ߫޿ . ߬ ߽ Ի ӫ[68]. ҡ 񡿬, 6 , ὿ Ѯ ߬ Ӽ ӫԿ ӫ-ѡӿ. 񡿬 ƫ߬ Ѯ ӿ ѡӫ ߿ѡ? ԫ ӫ ߻ޡ ᡿ 󫮡 ɫ߿. ƫӪ ӫ޽ Ҭ? տѻ߬ ӫ߽߬ ѽ ߻ ?. ỽ᡿ӫᡡ ٽ ѽᡫ ӫ. 䫽?ٮ Ѯ ٽ ԫ Ի, Ҽѡ ѡ ٽ ԫѡ ѡ ԫ ǡ 3- ?ѡ[69].

Ὣ ӫ񫽪὿ ӿѺ ѡ ? ߽ 񡿬. ѵ ԡ ѻ ?ޡ ӿ ԿѽѮ Ӵ. ᡿ߴ ߬ 񡫮 ѡ ߬ ԡ ѡ߬ ế ᬫ ѻ ӿѼ[70], ᬪ ӫѡ ӡԿ ѡ Ӵ ẽټ ټ ѡ[71].

ū ᡿ ԫӪ Ҽѡ Ѵѽ ӫ? ѡ ѡ ѡ . ԿѮ Ӵ ӫѡ տѻ߬ ѽ ӫ ߫Ӫ᡿ ӿ ѡ 10 Ѭ, ߽ѡ 500 Ѯ Ҫ ѡ, ᬪ ѡ ӫ񫽪ѡ 󫮡 3% ߬ Ҫ Ҫ 󫮡[72]. ӫ ԫ ٽ Ԭ ӫ , ӿᡡ ټ ѡ ߽Ҫ, ڿ ᬿ- ӿ Իߴ ӫ. ެ ѽ ӫ ٽ ӿ Ѯ ޿ [73].

1915 Ҽѡ ӫ񫽪 ᡿ߴ ѽἿ ?Ӵ. Ҫ ٽ ڿ ߬ ѽڿ ӫѽ Ѻ ӫ, ӫ ӫ ѽ, իѮߴ 12 Ӵ, Ӽᵿ ?ӡ ߿ ӿ ǬѼ Ҭ, ԫӫ, Ѫ ӫ, ӿ, ԫ 1915 . ẽ 髽 ի ? Ӵ ի Կ ѡ߬ ߫, ?ӫ ԫ ԫ ޿[74]. , ӫ ѡ ެ .

ԡѡ տѻ߬ ѽ ԡ ߽? իӫ޿, Ӽ տ, Ѽ տѻ߬ ƿի, ӫ󽴽 ԫ Կ ῼ᡿. , ӿ, ừ Ҽѡ ެ 1914 . ỿ: ?ѡ ߫ѯ, ԫ [ѵ] ԡ, Ѫ Ѽ ԫ , ӫ ӫ? 󡿼ѽ, ٽ ԫ ἼԿ߬, ԿԿ߬ [] ޿?[75].

ԼԿ 󡿼ѽ ӫ Ҽѡ ? ӫټ . ѽ ԫ, ӿ, ӫԫ Ҫ, ԫٮ ߫ԫ ѡټ ӿ ? 1910 . ᬫ-ԫ ӿ 󫽿, ԫ Ҫ Ὣߴ Ե , ԫ ޿ ߬ ս. ѵ 񽫪 ѮԿ ԫӫѼ, ԫ ?Կ ӿ ߡ Ԭ . ƫ ѵ 񽫪 Ѽ ߡ Ӵ, ԫ ạ Ѽ Ὣ᡿ 8 Ѯ ߴ. ? 1915 ԫ Ҫ Ԭ὿ Ὣ᡿, ᬫ ѵ ӫ񫽪 Կ Ѽ Ӽ 6 Ѯ ?ߴ[76].

1915 . Ҽѡ . ? ߫ 󡿼ѽ ẫ ӫ ԫ, ᬫ ٽ ѡ Ҽѡ . ѯѮߴ ԫ ӫ ߫ߴ 1915 . Ҽѡ ?ԫѽѼ ߬ ǽѬ߬ Ҫ߬ , Ѻ Ҭ᡿ ԫӡ ԫ[77]. ᬫ ?ӫ߽߬ ѻ?տ 񫼫Դ? Ԭ, ԫ ѽѡѼ Ѯ 濡 5-23 ѡԴӴ 1915 . ٽ ᡫѡ 󫽿 ԫѽ ߬ ūӫ߬ Ӵ տ?ӿ ӿ, ߽ ѬԿ Ѻѡ ߫?ԫ, үߴ 񫽪 ạ ԡ ӫ߽߬ ƫ߬ Ӵ Ҽѡ [78]. ӫ ԫ, ߫᡿ , ỿᡡ Ѻ , ԫӫ Ҽѡ ߴ ԫѽ ūӫ߬ Ӵ[79]. ԫѽ ߬ ǽѬ߬ Ӵ տ?ӿ ԫѮ ӫ񫽪 Կ ߽᡿, ᮡѮ , 1916 [80]. 櫺ߴ Խѡ, ԫ ԫ Ҭᡡ , ߻Ҵ ߻᡿ Ѭԫ , ԫ ѽ ԫ ạѡ Ҽѡ ? 1915 .

, Ҽѡ 󽴽ߴ ԡ ƫ߬ ?Ӵ 4 4 ߴ, 1 1910 . 23 ѡԴӴ 1915 . ԫ Ѽ ӫ Ѵѽټ ߻ޡټ ҬѽѼ Ӵ, ߻ѽ ѽ ԫ ԫ. 񫽯 ԡ ٻ὿ ᬿ ԡ ߫Կ, ? Ӵ 꼻ԫӫ 쿬Ѽ II ѮѮ ?Ѯ, ᬪ ᡿ 600-Կ ƫ߬ Ӵ. ѡ ٽ ԫ ٻѡ. ? Ҽѡ 󽴽ߴ ߽Ҫѡ һѡ ߬ ūӫ߬ ߿ټ Ѽ.



[1]ѡ ߻񡿬 ӫ߽߬ ѻտ. . 2: տѻ߬ ߬ (Ἣ); ໿߬ ɫᡫ߬ ѡἿ (߬ѡ߬); . 3: ѡ߽Ҫѽ Ӵ /ū . ӫ. . իᡫ. : ߽. . . . ӿ , 2000. . 6-7.
[2]ӽ . ӫ߽߬ 󫬽ߡٮ ƫ߬ . ԫӿ-ԿԿ߬ Ӭ. 1314-1914. ӫ߽, 1913.
[3] ԼԿ, ԫ ?ѡ ߻񡿬 ӫ߽߬ ѻտ? ӿѡ ѻٮ ӫѡ 1881. ԫ, ԫ տѻ߬ ӫߴ 1880 , ԡ ѽ ӿ ừѡ ᡬ ᬽѡ ӫ. ., ӿ: . . -40943. . 4.
[4]ӫ ެ ߻ѡ 񡫿ѡ ӫ ǽ߬ տѽ.
[5]ӫ Ԭ ߻ѡ ӫ ᡫ Ἣ ԫ ǽ߬, 󽴽ߴ һѮ޿ ӫ ǽ߬ ԫѮ 1906 .
[6]ɫߴ 6 ԴӴ 1868 . 1893 . ߬ү իү ǬѼ. 1994 . ӿ?ѡ Ҭѡ ӫ. 14 ѬӴ 1903 . տӫԫ ѻ߬ ǽ߬߬, ӿ ӫ-Ǽӿ߬ ѻտ. 1923 . ӿ ѡ߬ ߿. 1933 . ԫ Իѡ ٽ . 1937 ٽ ԫ 3 ѬӴ 1937 . ѽ . ǽ-.
[7]ūѽѡ Ѭ ٽ ߻ѡ ӫ Hinchinbrook (߬ ᡿ ), ӿѼ ԫӫ ҫӫ ǽ߬, ὿ Port Etches (὿ 諡Կ ѡ). ѻ ӫѡ. .: Ѯ Ӭ. ԫ ǽ߬. : - ӻԿ. 1948. . 49.; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_Etches
[8].: Ǭ Ѯ ƿի, ӿ ߬߬ Ѵ ɫ߿, Ѯ޿ Ҽѡ ѻ߬ ᡫ߬ Ѽ Ѯ Ӭ󡫮 Կ, 1917-1943 / . . . . .: - , 1994. . 897.
[9]ū ԫ ?ӽ . ӫ߽߬ 󫬽ߡٮ ƫ߬ ? . 123 ạѡ Ҭ 23 ѽ. ᬫ, , ԫ ԫ ?ѡ ߻񡿬 ӫ߽߬ ѻտ? . 6 ߻ ߽Ҫ ߻߫ Ҽѡ (Ἣ) 30 Ӵ 1914 . (. . 796. Ļ. 439. . 787), Կү ߴ 13 ѽ.
[10]忺ѫ᡿ տѻ߬ (Ἣ) ߼.: Ҽѡ ߻񡿬 ӫ߽߬ ѻտ. . 5-6.
[11]. ӽ . . 122. տӿ ӿ (ҽᬫ) ӫի ߬ Ѽ. ū 񡫼 ߫߿ ѡ ޽ . ӫ ƫ߬ 30 , ӫի ߽᡿. 1897 . ѡ 13 ߽᡿ ԡ ƫ߬ Ӵ.
[12].: Ǵ. . 245. On .1. . 357. . 34, 39, 159.
[13]. ӽ . . 122.
[14] Ѻ ӿ ạѡ ӫ ԡ 1 1910 . Ǵ. . 245. ġ .1. . 357. . 66.
[15] . . 39.
[16] . . 46, 185.
[17]ӫ߽߬ ѻտ 񫼫Կ ( ѮѼ ??), 1910 - 33. . 633-634.
[18]ӽ . . 124.
[19].: , 1910 - 33. . 632-633;- 38. .7494 - 45. . 94
[20] ߻߬ 󽴯ߴ ߽үڿ : 5 ὴ 1911 . ɫԫ߬ ѡ߬ Ἷ ߽ ߻ߴ ԿߴԿԿ ߽Ҫѡ ѡ ԫѽ ѽ տӿ Ӽ; 2 24 ἴ ԫӻ ?ӿ ӿ߫߬ ɫԫ ѽ; 13 ߽ Ѻѡ տѻ߬ ƿի; 20-21 ѡԴӴ Ѽ߬ , ߽ Ἣ 񡿬 . 俼ӿ ɫԫ߬; 26 1912 . ߽ Ի᡿ ߫ ԫѽ ѡ?߬ Ἷ Ӵ տӿ Ӽ; 13 ԴӴ 1913 . ӿ߫߬ ? ɫԫ߬ Ѻ ߽ ԫӪѡ Կ ߫ 606 . 10 . . . , 1911 - 11,42; 1912 - 1,210,11, 13,14, 21, 27; 1913 - 22, 47.
[21]߬ ӫ߬ ١ 17 . ߬. ūԿ ٽ ԫѡ ӿ ӫѽ ߬ ᡿.
[22]Ǵ. . 245. Ļ .1. . 357. . 49-52,58, 74.
[23] . . 72.
[24] . . 138.
[25].. ߽ѡ ߽ޡ Ӵ.
[26]Ǵ. . 245. Ļ .1. . 384. . 6, 19, 111.
[27] ѡ Կ ߼. ӫ߽߬ ի󡫮 諡߿ԫӿ 1910-1915 . ߼.: Ǵ. . 357,377,384, 390 409.
[28]ӽ . . 125-126.
[29]Ǵ. . 245. Ļ .1. . 409. . 3
[30]Ǵ. . 245. Ļ .1. . 357. . 73,95-96.
[31] . . 136.
[32]Ǵ. . 245. Ļ .1. . 384. . 168.
[33].. ߡ .
[34]Ǵ. . 245. Ļ .1. . 409. . 47.
[35]Ǵ. . 245. Ļ .1. . 377. . 20,180.
[36]Ǵ. . 245. Ļ .1. . 384. . 77-78.
[37]ӽ . . 45-47, 65.
[38], 1912.- 12.
[39]Ǵ. . 245. Ļ .1. . 377. . 206.
[40]ӽ . . 40,42-44.
[41]Ǵ. . 245. Ļ .1. . 377. . 7-8, 38, 73. ӫѬԡ ӿҡ ٽ ߼. . 384.
[42]ӽ . . 42; . 377. . 73.
[43]Ǵ. . 245. On. 1. . 377. . 10-11,23-25.
[44], 1913. -13. . 280.
[45]Ǵ. . 245. On. 1. . 377. . 56.
[46]ӽ . . 123.
[47]ӽ . . 124-125. Ǵ. . 245. On. 1. . 384. . 89,92.
[48] . . 124.
[49] . . ᬪ: Ǵ. . 245. On. 1. . 390. . 1.
[50]Ǵ. . 245. On. 1. . 384. . 117,126.
[51] . . 129.
[52]. 1913 . 28: ѫ.. . 544-545.
[53], 1913. - 34. . 249-250.
[54], 1913. - 44. . 876-877. ѡ Ӽᵿ ߴ ԫ ԫ? ?ѡ ߻񡿬 ӫ߽߬ ѻտ? Ѻ ߡ߫ ᬫ- ԫ.
[55]Ǵ. . 245. On. 1. . 390. . 7.
[56]ӽ . . 124.
[57], 1912. - 4.
[58]ӽ . ԼԿ, ԫ ӫԫ ´ ū߬ ӿ ԫ ԫ Ἣ Ҽѡ . (. ū߬ ., ӫԫ. ѡ ɫ߿߬. . 2. 䪫󿽽, 1949-1957. . 13.)
[59], 1914. - 1. . 1.
[60], 1914,- 6. . 117.
[61], 1914. - 7 - ѫ. . 137.
[62]ӽ . . 59-61.
[63]. ƫ ѡ // ⫽. 1910. - 10 (23) . . 3.
[64].: ūӴ ߽Ҫѡ ƫ߬ 7-10 1915 . Ǵ. .245. On. 1. . 409. . 168-170.
[65]. .
[66]Ǵ. . 245. On. 1. . 391. (ӡ ᡿ ӫѡ ᡿ 600-ԡ Ѵ ƫ߬ Ӵ) . 1-4.
[67]Ǵ. . 245. On. 1. . 392. (ӡ ᡿ ӫѡ 񡿬 600-Կ ƫ߬ Ӵ) . 3-8. Ẽѡ ߼. Ǵ. . 245. On. 1. . 357. . 79; . 409. . 172.
[68]Ǵ. . 245. ġ. 1. . 390. . 132.
[69]ѡ ٽ Ὣ Ѽ , 1914 . . . . 246.
[70]?߼ӿ὿ ԫӿѽԿ. ۴ߡѡ ԡ... 񽫪 ? ߬ Ѻ?. ū߽ ӿѺ ߬ ƫ߬ ѡ Ӵ. , 1915. - 6. . 125-128.
[71]Ǵ. . 245. On. 1. . 390. . 158-168.
[72] . . 152-153.
[73]Ǵ. . 245. On. 1. . 409. . 127.
[74]. . . 11, 286, 78-79.
[75] . . 30.
[76]Ǵ. . 245. On. 1. . 418. . 218.
[77]. ѡ ߻񡿬 ӫ߽߬ ѻտ. . 7.; ҽ ? 諽ᡫ . Ž?ѡٮ // , , 2006. . 16-17.
[78], 1915.-41. . 315.
[79]Ǵ. . 245. ġ. 1. . 418. . 325, 329.
[80]ԡ, ԫ տӿ ԫѮ, ԫѽѼ ߬ ǽѬ߬ Ӵ, 1915 . ƫ ѡ ߽Ҫ Ҽѡ ƫ߬ . ԫӫ, ߽Ҫ ߻߬ ǽѬ߬ Ӵ 1916 ᬪ ?ߴ ԫѽ ߬ ǽѬ߬ Ӵ. . Ǵ. . 245. On. 1. . 409. . 168-170; . 418. . 221-223.