߬߬ ӿ


߽ٮ ԫ-ƿի߬ Ҽ᡿ӡٮ ߿






,






( ӫѼ )




߬, 2005 .





        ߽ٮ ԫ-ƿի߬ Ҽ᡿ӡٮ ߿  ߬ ߴ -
        ޿ ټ ѡѼ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ. ߿ Ѫѡ Ѯ-
        ޿ ӿի ߬߬  Ѵ ߿ ǽѬ߿Ѽ II  1992 .  ԫѼ Ѽѡ 
        ߿ ԫ 11 ٻ߬ ( 1500 ٻ߬). ߿  -
        ѡү ᬬᵿ (ѽ  ѡ ᬬᵿ N0885  2 
        ѽ 2003 .)   񿻽 ѡ ẵ. ѡ  ѽ-
         ߴ ӫ  Ӽ.
         ߫ ߿ 8 ҽԫ: 
         ҽ - ѡ "ѫ" (ӿ  ), 
        ߻ѵԿ "ѫ", "ѽѡ";
         ҽ - ߻ѵԿ "ѫ", "ѽѡ";
         ҽ - ߻ѵԿ "  ԫ  
        ẫ᡿", "櫵 ";
         ҽ: ѽѡ "߬ ", "ɫᡫ-Ӽ߬ 
        ", "ԫ-ӿԿ߬ " - ߻ѵ  "";
        Ѫҽ߬ ѽѡ   - ߻ѵ "-
        ";
         ҽ - ߻ѵԿ "ԫӿ", "ԫӿ-տѡ";
        ҽ  :
        ѽѡ "ꬫ", "Ҽѡ ߬", "ᵿ " - ߻ѵ-
         "󫻿";
        ѽѡ "Ӭ ޿" - ߻ѵ "ѬԿ-ӿ ߬";
        ѽѡ "ԫӿ  ѫӿ ӿԿ߬ ߬" - ߻ѵ "߬-
        ѡ";
        ҽ  : ѽѡ "ѡԫ᡿" - ߻ѵ "-
        ӿӫ᡿" (Ѽ߬ իӫ); ѽѡ "ԫӿ  ѫӿ Ӭ-߬ 
        ߬" - ߻ѵ "Һ٬ѡ" (὿ᵿ  Һ٬, Ҭѽ -
        ѬԿ ߬ ѡ, ѻѽ);
        ҽ   - 񫻫ѽ ὿ᵿ 
        "ج߻  Կ ѫ"; ѡ ὿ᵿ, ӫ߿ ѻԫ-
        . ᡵ ѡ;
          իߴ  ߫ ҽ 䫻ѽ-
         ẫ᡿   ԫ ӿѡԫ  Ѽ ߻ѵԴ -
        ߿.
        
        ӡ ( - )   ѽѡ ѯߴ  ҽ ߽߬, 
        ߿߬, ߬,  䫻ѽ ẫ᡿.
         ѡ  ҽԫ  ẫ ߽߬ ẫ᡿. 滿߫ ߽-
        ߬ ԫ   ߫Ӫ᡿ ߫ү ӫἼ, ӿټ  ޿ ի 
         ѡ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ.
        ӿ Կ Ѯ ߻  ߽үڿ  ټ  ѡ:
              05.25.02 - 䫬Ҽѡ὿Կ, Ҽѡԫѡ, տѡ;
              07.00.02 - ѡ ԫӿ;
              10.02.01 - ߿߬ , Կ߬  ߬ ;
              13.00.01 -  , ԫӿ   ẫ᡿;
              17.00.09 - ѫӿ  ԫӿ ߬;
              09.00.13 - ߫  ԫӿ ѽ, ߫߬ ӫ, ߫ ҽ;
              10.01.01 - ߬ ;
              17.00.02 - Һ٬ ߬.
             ū ߽ѡ ӿ ߬߬  Ѵ ߿ ǽѬ߿ II Ԭ ߻  
        ᵿٮ ѡٮ ߫  ڿ ߽߬  Ӭ - ԫӿ߬ -
          ѻѡ , , ԫ ߽, ԫ Ӭ󡫮 ԫӿ.
             Ѭ  Ѽ߬ ᡴԿ ӫի  ᡿ ߿  : ҽ. 
        Һѵ, 23 , (, , ), ҽ. ĺӡ,42, . .  - (, , , 
        , , ), ҽ.  ѡ, 8, . . Ӭ ū (),  ᡿   . 
        ߿  6 ߡ ߬, 2 ߬ Ῥ  ߬, 3 -
        ߬ Ӭ ޿, 1 ߬ү  ᵿ . 
        Ǭԫٮ ѡ ߿- 18 Ӵ, ѡ ᡿ . ӿ ƿի  -
        ӿ޿ ԫ.  ԫ ѡ  ҡ߿߬   ӫ  Ŵ-
         ҽ. ߫ߴ տѮ߬ ߽Ҫ,  ƫӪѡ Ǭ һ Կ 
        ߿, ߴ   ѡԫ  ѻѽѮ ҽ 
        Ӭ ,  ԫ ի ߡѡ һ ҡ߿߬ ի.
        ӫ Ѫҡӫ 󴺿 ߿ 󫽴 ޿ ѡ ӫի 
        ᪿӫ  Ѫ  ѡ.
        
        ɴ 
        1.  ߽ٮ ԫ-ƿի߬ Ҽ᡿ӡٮ ߿ ( ) ӿߴ  -
        ߽ ӫ߻᡿.
        2.  ٮ  ӿߴ , ѯڿ Ҽѡ ѡ ẵ  Ѽ () 
        Ѽ  Ѽ ӫ߿ ẫ᡿,  ᬪ 񿻽   ӫ߿ ẫ-
         , ߽  Ѽ  ỿ  ѡ ۴ѽѼ  ()  ẫ᡿.
         ٮ  ߽үڿ  ӿߴ , ѯڿ 񿻽 ѡ ẵ  ѻ-
         Ѽ ӫ߿ ẫ᡿, Ѽ߬ү ߻ ᡫѡ ẵ  Ѻᬫѡ 
        Ѽ ӫ߿ ẫ᡿  񿻽 ѡ ẵ  ѡ Ѽ ӫ-
        ߿ ẫ᡿ ẽ һѡѮ.
        3. ߽ٮ ԫ-ƿի߬ Ҽ᡿ӡٮ ߿  ӿѼ ᡡ -
          ѡ   ӫ ԫ. 
        䫬Ҽѡ ѡ ẵ  Ѽ ( ) Ѽ ẫ᡿, ᡡ  ӿԫӿ 
        Ǻ߬ ߻, ߻ Ӽѡ, ߻ ѽ߿, ߻ , -
        ߬ ߻, ߻ , ߻ 񪿬, ῡ  ԫ߬ ߻, -
        󽴯ߴ  ӿѼү ߿  񽿡  ӿ ѡټ   ߬ ٬. Ѭ 
           ѡ ӫ߿߬ ӿ߫  ҽ ɫ߿߬ ᵿ   -
         Ҽѡ  ẫ᡿.
        䫬Ҽѡ ѡ ẵ  Ѽ () Ѽ ẫ᡿, ᡡ  ӿԫӿ 
        Һ, Ӭѡ, ߻ Ѭ, ߬ ߻, ԫ߬ ߻, -
        ߴ  ӿѼү ߿  񽿡  ӿ ѡټ   ߬ ٬ Ѻ ӫի-
        ѡ ӫ ӿᵿ   ẫ᡿ ɫ߿ ӿ ߽  ӿᵿ  -
        ẫ᡿  ᡫѡ Ӵ  ӿ  1 Ӵ 2006 .
        4. 佴 ӿѼ Ҽѡԫ  һڿ  ᡿ᵿ һѽ ߻᡿ ߫ߴ ӿѼ 
        ߿. ѽѼ ӿѼ ߿  ߴ Ѭԫ.
        佴 ӿѼ һѽ ߻᡿  һڿ  ٮ  ᡿үߴ ԡ ݬѡ-
         ߿.
        5. ӿѼ   ӫߴ   ӫѡ     ߡ  Ѻҽԫ һѽ -
        ᡿, ӫ  ѽ ѽѡ 󫺼Կ һڿ  ߫үڿ ӫ߿-
         ẫѽ ӫἼ,  ߽ѡ ,  ߻߫  ԫѡ  -
         ߡ ẫѽ ӫἼ  ẫ᡿.
        
          ӿ  Ҽѡԫ   ӿѡ 󽴯 Ҽѡ:
        1) ߻, ԫӴڿ    ,
        2) ӫѡ   Ѭԫ  Ҭ᡿Ѽ ᡡ ѡ ԫ (߻ѵԿ), ҽ-
        , Ӽ ѡ (ừߴ ӿ  Ҽѡԫ),
        3) ӿ Ҽѡ ѡ ẵ  ẫ᡿. ӿѡ   ѡ  
        һѽ ݬѡ ӿ ὿ ӫ Ҽѡ  ẫ᡿, ѡ  ӿѼ -
        ߿   ӿ. ӿ Ҽѡ ѡ ẵ  ẫ᡿ ӿѡ 
        񫽪   10.08.2005 . ￵,  ۴޿ 񽿡 Ҽѡ  ẫ᡿  
        10.08.2005 ,    ү   ߿  ߬ߴ,
        4)  񿵿߬ү ߻ (Ӽ 086  һڿ  ,  2005 .),
        5) 4 ӡ-ѽ ᬫ ԫ 34 ߼,
        6) ԫ (ừߴ ӿ  Ҽѡԫ),
        7) Ѭѡᵿ ի󡿬 ( 󫺼Կ),
        8) ᡬ  ᡬ (ừߴ ӿ  Ҽѡԫ),
        9) ӿѡ, ߫ԫڿ  , 󽴯  ѽ  ѡ᡿,
        10)  ѽ  ѡ (߽ ),
        11) ӿѡ, ѯڿ ѡٮ , 󽴯  ѡ߬ Ἣ.
        佴 һѡ    ԫѽ ѽѡ,  ҽ 񫻫ѽ ẫ-
         ӿѡ 󽴯 ߽үڿ Ҽѡ:
        1)  Ҽѡ  ẫ᡿, ѡ ӿ   ӿѼ ߿  ߻  
        ެ  ڿߴ   ѡ (  һڿ  ūԫѽ ѽѡ),
        2) ߻ (ѽ  ӫѡ),
        3)  ӡ-ѽ ᬫ ԫ 34,
        4) Ѭѡᵿ  ի󡿬 ( 󫺼Կ),
        5) ӫѡ   Ѭԫ (ừߴ ӿ  Ҽѡԫ),
        6) ᡬ  ᡬ (ừߴ ӿ  Ҽѡԫ),
        7) ԫ (ừߴ ӿ  Ҽѡԫ).
            Ҽѡ   ѡ һڿ, ߽  ѡ  , ᡫѡ 
        ᬫѽ ɫ߿߬ ᵿ. ᬪ ᡡ Ҽѡ     һ 
        ӿ ὿ ᡿ѡ, ᡫѡ ᬫѽ ɫ߿߬ ᵿ   ѡ  ߫-
        үڿ ߻ѵԴ  ӫ߿ ẫ᡿. ū߽ 31.07.05 . ᬿ 񫻫ѽ 
        Ҽѡ  ѡ  ӿѼ ߿Ѯ  ӿߴ  ѡ  ߼ӿߴ.
        ӿ һѡ   ߻ѵԿ, ӫ ߻ѵѮ ߬ ҽ, ߴ 
        Ѻҽ 񿡫 ѡ ݬѡ  ߬ ٬. ӿ һѡ   ߻ѵԿ -
        ߴ Ѻҽ 񿡫 ѡ ݬѡ  ԫӿ.
        Ѭ ӿѼ ߿  ӿѡ ߻߬,  ԫӫ ߽ߴ ӿ Ҽѡ-
        .
        ӿѡ ᬫߴ   ߿, Ἷ ѡ ߻Ӵ , ūӴ񬫼 
        ӫիѡ ߽᡿  Ѭԫ   ѡ ѡ  .
        6.  ߡ᡿ ѡ ѡ  ߻߬, Ѽ ӿѼ ߿Ѯ  ӿ ӿѼ, -
        ѡ   ѡ ѽ ԫ .
        7. ￵,  ὴ ޿ ẫѽ Ѫѡ  ()     
        ӫ߿ ẫ᡿,  ᬪ ,  ԽѼ ޿ ẫѽ Ѫѡ  
        ӫ߿ ẫ᡿, ӿߴ  Ѻҽ ߫᡿,  ߬ѡѼ һѽ 
        ߻᡿ ӫ߿ ѡԿ (ӫ ߻᡿). ӿѡ,  ӫ޿ ߫-
        ᡿   ()  ޿  Խ ӫ ߻᡿, ү    ڿ ߡ᡿.
        8. һѽ ߻᡿ ӫߴ  ߫  ߻᡿Ѽ.  ߻᡿ ӿѡ ߬-
        ߴ ӿ ۴ѡ ݬѡᵿ   ߻ (ѡ ).
        9. ӿѡ,  ޿ߴ  һѽ ߻᡿ Ѻ ᪿѽ ӿ, ޿ -
        ӿѽү ѡ,  ᬪ ޿ Ҽѡ ߽  һѽ ߻᡿,  
            ߽ߴ  .  ߬ߴ ԫӡ Կ ӿѡ  .
        10. ӿѡ, һڿ    ӡ ѽѡ   ޿ߴ  һѽ ߻-
          ᪿѽ ӿ, ߬ߴ    ώѽ һ    ӿ  
        12.08.05 ., ӿ ԫ ߼ӿߴ ӫѡ    ߻᡿  ѡ. ū߽ 12.08.05 . -
        ѽ ߻᡿  ӫߴ.
        ᪿѽ ӿ ӫ߬ һѽ ߻᡿ 󽴯ߴ:
        - Ѻ ӿѡ (Ӫߴ ۴ѡѼ ߻  Ѻ  ѡ Ѫѡ, 
        ѡ   Ѫѡ);
        - Ѻᮡ ߿ᵿ (Ӫߴ ۴ѡѼ ߻ ѡ ᡿ᵿ, ߿-
        ӫѮ  Ѻᮡ ߿ᵿ).
        11. ū Ѻҽ һѽ ߻᡿ һڿ    ѡ ѽ 
        ѡ  ޿Կ,   ѡ ѡ, ѡ  һѽ ߻᡿. ӫѡ  
        ѽ ӿѡ    ӿѼү ߿  ạѡ  ѽ Ѽ. ѡ  
        ԫ ,  ԫ ߽  ӫѡ ӿѡԫ,  ӿߴ   ߼ӿߴ.
            ӿ  ѽ ӿѡ 񫽪ѡ  ӿ  Ҽѡ, ԫӴڿ  .
            ǻѽ  ԡټ ߻᡿ ӿߴ ԫ  ѡ ӫѡ ߻᡿.
            ǻѽ  ѡټ һѽټ ߻᡿ ӿߴ ԫ  ѡ ۴ѡ ѡ  
        ѡ ߻᡿. ūһڿ  ᬫߴ ߫ Ѯ ԫ  ѡ Ѽѡ, ᡫѡ-
         ߽ ۴ѡ ѡ  ѡ ߻᡿.
            ǻѽ  ӿѡԫ,  ޿   Ҭᡡ Ѽ,  ạߴ   ӫߴ.
            ߼ѡ ѽ  ߴ ݬѡ󬫮,  ի ߼ѡ ѽ ӫӴߴ 
        ԫ  ѡ Ѻҽ  һѽ ߻᡿.
            ū߽ ߼ѡ ѽ ١߿ߴ ѡ ѽ ߿  ѡ  ݬѡᵿ-
          (  ߽  ѡ,   ѡ).
        12. ū Ѻҽ һѽ ߻᡿  ߫᡿ ӿߴ ѡ  ߽ѡ ӿ-
        ѡ  ߫үү ߻ѵ  Ӽ ѡ.
        13.   ӿ ߽ ߻ޡ  һѽ ߻᡿   ߽ߴ:
        - Կ-߿ӫ  Կ, ޿ߴ Ѻ ѡ ӫѽѮ;
        - ὿ I  II һ, ԫټ ߫ߡ ᬽѡ - ݬ߻ԡ  ߿  ӫԿ-
        󫻫ᡫ ѡ  Ѽ  ѡ;
        -     20-Կ , ѯڿ ԫ  ӫѽ-὿ 1 һ, ߽ -
         ի Ѽ  ѽ ӫԫ Ҽ;
        -   ӿ, ߼ѡ ᬫѽ. 
        櫫үڿ Ҽѡ 񫽪  ѡ  ӿѼү ߿   һѽ 
        ߻᡿.
        14. ūһ޿ ᬽ   ѡ  .
        
        䫬Ҽѡ ӿߴ  :   115184, ߬, ҽ. Һѵ, 23-
        ѽ. 951-67-84, 953-22-89
        ߬, ҽ. ĺӡ, . 42
        ѽ. 785-94-21
        	    ߿: htt://pstbi.ru/
        		E-mail: priemkom@pstbi.ru, pstbi@pstbi.ru.
                䫬Ҽѡ    (  ӡ) ѽѡ ӿ  1 ѽ  31  2005 . 䫬Ҽѡ 
          ѽѡ ӿ  1   31  2005 .,  ҽ 񫻫ѽ ẫ᡿  1 
          4 ѡԴӴ 2005 .,  ԫѽ ѽѡ  1   30 ѡԴӴ 2005 . 
               ѡ ѮԿ Կӫ᡿  ūԫѽ ѽѡ ӫի  7.05.05.  22.05.05., -
        ѽ ߻᡿ ӫի  1  15  2005 .   (  ӡ) ѽѡ;  1  12 ѡ-
        ԴӴ 2005 .   ѽѡ;  6  10 ѡԴӴ 2005 .  ҽ 񫻫ѽ ẫ᡿.
               ᡿  ūԫѽ ѽѡ ӫի  ѡԴ.
        I. ߽߬ ҽ (ѽ. 953-82-60)
               ߽߬ ҽ ӫ ѡ  ߻ѵԴ "ѫ", "ѽѡ".	
               ҽ  ޿ӫ ߽߬ ẫ᡿, ԫ ѻѽѮ ߽߬ ߵ  
        Һ,  ԡ  Կ ߽  Ӭ󡫮 ԫӿ.
               ẫѽ ѻ ߽߬ ҽ ӫߴ  ߡ᡿ ߿Ѻ 񿵿 󫽯-
         ߬ ߽߬ ެ, ߽ ߽  Ѭ  ߫Ѽѡ Ҭ. ټ 
        ӿἿ ẫ᡿ 󽴯ߴ ӡ ߽󡫼 ᡿, Ҭѡѡ  ԫ߬ ߽-
          ߫ ӫѡ  Ҽ᡿ӡ  ӫ߿ ẫ᡿. ޫ 󡿼᡿ ѽߴ 
        󡿼  ټ ᡡټ ٬. ѻ᡿ ߴ  ߫  ᡡټ  
        ߿ ѡټ Ἷ    ѫ, ߻ѵ὿ ѫ,  ᬪ 
        ѡټ ԫ    ѽѡ.
               ߽߬ ҽ Ӫ ߡ   ԫӿԡټ ߽߬ ټ -
         ѵ, Ҽ١, ӿ, ǡ, Ӽ᡿, ᡵ, ӽ, . ѡ ޿ -
        ߫ ѯ 󫺼 ӫի ᪿӫ  Ѫ.
               ѡ ߽߬ ҽ ӫի Կ  ߿߬ Ѻ.
                ߽߬ ҽ ӿߴ ԫ Ҫ,  ѯڿ ᡫ߬ ѻ  -
        ѡ  ѡٮ .
                  ӿߴ     35 .
              һѽ ߻᡿: ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ), ߬ 
        ٬ (ѡ), ԫӿ ɫ߿  1917 . (ԡ)  ᡡٮ ٬ ( ߬, Ѽѵ, ᡵҺ-
        ߬ ) (ԡ).
                  ӿߴ     50 . 
              һѽ ߻᡿: ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ), ߬ 
        ٬ (ѡ), ԫӿ ɫ߿  1917 . (ԡ).
                  ӿߴ ԫ ѡ  ᬫ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ   
          50 .
              һѽ ߻᡿: ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ), ߬ 
        ٬ (ѡ), ԫӿ ɫ߿  1917 . (ԡ).
                  ӿ ߽߬ ҽ ӿ-
        ߴ ޿  ެ    35 .
              ѽѡ ԫ ѫ-߻ѵ὿ԫ  Կ ӿԿ߬ ѡԿ (ӫ).  
        Ѽ  ѡ ѡ  ߿߬ ٬  ,  Ե Ӭ, ߽, 
        ӫ, ԫӿ Ӭ, ԫӿ 鿺Կ, ѡ ſ᡿, ߫Ѽѡ ٬.
              Ӽ ѡ - .
              һѽ ߻᡿: ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ), ߬ 
        ٬ (ѡ), ᡡٮ ٬ (߬, Ѽѵ  ᡵҺ߬ ) (ԡ).
        II. ߿߬ ҽ (ѽ. 785-94-29)
        ߿߬ ҽ ӫ ѡ  ߻ѵԴ: "ѫ", "ѽѡ".
        ҽ ԫ ѻѽѮ ߽߬ ߵ, ߡ ߽󡫮 ҽ, ߿ӫ, 
        ߫ ԡ. ټ ѡѼ ѴѽԿ ҽ ߴ ի ӫѡ. 
        ѡԫ ԫ     ạ , ߫ ѡ  ի ӫ. ѡ 
        ӫի Կ  ߿߬ Ѻ.
        ѡ  ẫ ߽߬ ẫ᡿.  ҽ   "ߡ -
        ߽  ừԿ", "Ѭԫѡ", "⫼ѽԿ", "ԫӿ ߿", "ԫӿ ѽ", "ҽӫ". 
           ӿߴ     35 . 
        һѽ ߻᡿: ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ), ߬ ٬ 
        (ѡ), ԫӿ ɫ߿  1917 . (ԡ).
           ӿߴ     50 .
        һѽ ߻᡿: ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ), ߬ 
        ٬ (ѡ), ԫӿ ɫ߿  1917. (ԡ).
           ӿߴ     50 .
        һѽ ߻᡿: ߬ ٬ (ѡ), ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ-
         ( ѡ), ԫӿ ɫ߿  1917. (ԡ).
        III. ߬ ҽ (ѽ. 785-36-23)
              ߬ ҽ ԫ ѻѽѮ  ߫  񫻫ѽ ߻ѵ὿ᵿѮ 
        "ߡ ߽󡫮 ҽ   ެ", ߫   񫻫ѽ ߻ѵ὿ᵿѮ 
        "ѫӿ  ԫ ѡ ߻᡿ ެ".
              ѡ, һ޿  ߬ ҽ  ᬽ޿   ,  ߡ󡫮 
        ߻ѵԿ  񫻫ѽү ӫἼ, 󬽯ү   ѽү ߽߬ү ߫-
        ү.  
              ٻ߬ ҽ  ѽ  ѫẫѽ  ߬ߡ ެ, ߽ 
        ế, ᡿ԫἿ ߫   ӿի,  ߬   ӿ.
              ѡ ߬ ҽ ӫի ѻү ӫ߿ү Կ,  ԫ ߽ 
        ԡ ߬ү Կ  ߽   ߬ ߬ Ӵ.
              ӿ ҽ ᡿  Ӽ ѡ  ߻ѵԿ "櫵 "  -
        ӿ  ѡ "",  ѡ ὿ᵿ  ѽѮ Ӭ  ѫ-
        ѽ  ѡ  ӫἼ "ի-ѡ ߻᡿  ߡ ߽󡫮 
        ҽӡ 񿵿".  ҽ ߴ    ߫ԡ  ɫ߿߬ ǬѼѮ -
        ẫ᡿  ڿ ߬ ҺἿ ɫ߿.
           ߻ѵ "  ԫ  ẫ᡿" ӿ-
        ߴ     30 . 
        һѽ ߻᡿: ߬ ٬ (ԡ), ߬ ٬  (ѡ), ӫ ߫-
          ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ).
           ߻ѵ "櫵 " ӿߴ     45 
        . 
        һѽ ߻᡿: ߬ ٬ (ѡ), ԫӿ ɫ߿  1917. (ԡ), ӫ 
        ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ). 
             ߻ѵ "櫵 "   ӿ  " " 
        ӿߴ     50 .
        һѽ ߻᡿: ߬ ٬ (ѡ), ԫӿ ɫ߿  1917 . (ԡ), ӫ 
        ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ).
        IV. ߬ ҽ (ѽ. 785-94-59)
            ߬ ҽ ԫ ߻ѵ὿ԫ  Կ ""  ѡ ߽󴡫-߬, 
        ԫ-ӿԿ߬  ӫᡫ-Ӽ߬ .   ѽѡ ҽ ѡ  -
        ٮ  ߽߬ ߵ. 
            ѡ, һ޿  ߬ ҽ  ᬽ޿   ,  ߡ󡫮 
        ߻ѵԿ  񫻫ѽү ӫἼ, 󬽯ү   ѽү ߽߬ү ߫-
        ү.
            Ӽ ѡ - Ǵ. ӿߴ     30 .
        ѽѡ ߬  ԫ ߻ѵ὿ԫ  Կ ߬ : ߽ѽѮ  
        ѻѽѮ ߬ ٬  .  ӫἼ ѡ ի ѡ ѫԿ߬  ԫ-
        ӿ߬ ἼԿ ߬ ٬, ߬ ӿԿ,  ᬪ ԫӿ ߬  Ѫ -
        , ӫ߽߬ ٬, ڿ Կ߬  ӫ߬ ߵ, ߻ѵ   
        Ѽ  ޿ӫ  ӫѼ ߬ , ߫Ѽѡ ߽߬  ӫѮ߬ ٬.
        һѽ ߻᡿: ߬ ٬ (ԡ), ߬ ٬   (߫ѡ), ӫ 
        ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ). 
        ѽѡ ӫᡫ-Ӽ߬  ԫ -ӫ᡿ԫ  Ӽ᡿ԫ, ѻ-
        ѽѮ    ᡡ ٬.  2005 . ӫߴ   ӫ񫽪ү һ -
        ߬ ٬   ү һ ߻߬ ٬. ٮ  ѽѡ ߼ӿ -
         ѫԿ߬ ἼԿ ӫ߬  Ӽ߬ ٬, ԫӿ Ѫ , 
        ᡫ߬, ڿ Կ߬  ӫ߬ ߵ, ߻ѵ   Ѽ 
         ޿ӫ  ӫѼ Ѫ , ԫ ѻ᡿  ٬.
        һ ߬ ٬ (ӫ񫽪) 
        һѽ ߻᡿: ߬ ٬ (ѡ  ԡ), ߬ ٬   (߫ѡ), 
        ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ).
        һ ߻߬ ٬ (). 
        һѽ ߻᡿: ᡡٮ ٬ (ᡵҺ߬, Ѽѵ  ߬) (ѡ  -
        ), ߬ ٬   (߫ѡ), ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ).
        ѽѡ ԫ-ӿԿ߬  ԫ ߻ѵ὿ԫ  ѡ ἴԡ 
        ӿԿ߬ ԫ   Ѯ޿ ٬.  ӫἼ ի ڿ ߽߬, Կ߬  
        ӫ߬ ߵ, ٬: Ѯ߬, ߿ӿ߬, ߬, ߬, Һ߬, 
        Ӽ߬,  ᬪ ߿߬   ӫѮ߬ ٬. 
        һѽ ߻᡿: ᡡٮ ٬ (߬, Ѽѵ  ᡵҺ߬) (ԡ), ߬ 
        ٬   (߫ѡ), ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ).
        V. Ѫҽ߬ ѽѡ ߿߬  (ѽ. 423-54-33) 
               ѽѡ ߿߬  ӫ ѡ  ߻ѵԿ "".
         ѽѡ ԫ  - ߿: ߻ѵ὿ԫ  Կ ߬  Կ߬ , -
        ѽѮ ߬  Կ߬ ٬,  Կ .  ӫἼ ѡ ի ѡ 
        ߬  Կ߬ ٬,  ԫӿ߬ ἼԿ, ԫӿ ߬  ӿ߬ , ѡ 
         ԫ᡿  ԫӫ,  ԫӿ  , ߡ ᪡Ѯ޿ ߻ѽ -
        ߬ ߵ. ѻߴ ߬ ٬  ߡ ӫѮ߬ ٬ (Ѽѵ, ߬, 
        ᡵҺ߬, ߬).
        ѡ, һ޿  ѽѡ ߿߬    ᬽ޿   ,  
        ߡ󡫮 ߻ѵԿ  񫻫ѽү ӫἼ, 󬽯ү   ѽү ߽-
        ߬ү ߫󽴯ү.  
        Ӽ ѡ - Ǵ. ӿߴ     30 .
        һѽ ߻᡿: ߬ ٬   (߫ѡ), ᡡٮ ٬ (߬, Ѽѵ-
          ᡵҺ߬) ( ԡ), ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ).
         ݬѡἿ ӫߴ ߫᡿  ѽ ѽѡ.
        VI. ԫӿ߬ ҽ (ѽ. 785-94-57)
              ҽ ԫ ߻ѵ὿ԫ  ѡ ԫӿ  ԫӿ - տѡ, ѻѽѮ 
        ԫӿ ɫ߿  ѫѮ ԫӿ   ѫẫѽ ެ. ūԫ ߴ  ߻ѵ-
        Դ "ԫӿ"  "ԫӿ-տѡ".  ߫  ẫ ẫ᡿ ѡԫ ԫӿ߬-
         ҽ ի ߽߬, Ӭ-ԫӿ߬ ߵ,  ᬪ  Ҽ᡿-
        ӡ ӫ (߫, ᡡ ٬  .). 
        ߫ٮ  ߫󽴯 ӫүڿ   ѡ  ѫѮ ԫӿ, ߻ѽټ 
        ԫӿ߬ ߵ - տѡ, ԫѡ, ԫӿ, ԫӿ ɫ߿  .
        ѡ, һ޿   ԫӿ߬ ҽ  ᬽ޿   ,  ߡ󡫮 
        ߻ѵԿ  񫻫ѽү ӫἼ, 󬽯ү   ѽү ߽߬ү ߫-
        ү. 
               ҽ ӿߴ     30 . 
              Ӽ ѡ - Ǵ.
        һѽ ߻᡿: ԫӿ ɫ߿  Ѯ޿ Ѽѡ   XX . (ԡ), ߬ ٬ 
        (ѡ), ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ).
        VII. ҽ Ӭ  (ѽ. 449-81-67)
        ҽ Ӭ  ӫ ѡ  ߻ѵԴ "󫻿", "ѬԿ - ӿ-
         ߬", "߬ѡ".
        ҽ ԫ ߬, ҺѮ ԡ ( ѫԿ߬ ѽѡ),  ᬪ -
        , Ҽѡ὿ԫ, ԫӫ , Ӭ ޿ڿ.
        ߴ ߻ѵ ߬߬ ߵ: Ѽӡ ԫӿ ߬, ߬ -
         ߬, ߬ ߬ ߬, ѬԿ-ӿ ߬,  ߻ѵ ߵ-
          ѽѡ.
        ҽ Ӭ  ᡿ Կ  ߬ ӫ (ӫ, ߬, ɫԫ 
        ѽ, 񿼿). ѡ-ߵ ԫ ӫի Ѻү Կ  ߿, ӫ᡿. 
        ڿ ߻ѵ὿ Ҽѡ ߬ ү ߬. ڿ ԫ ӫի Կ 
         ᵿ . ѡ ѽѡ Ӭ ޿   ԡѮ Կ ޿  -
        Ѯ  Ἣ ɫ߿  ߬ ạѡ (ӫ, տ, ᡿, ӫ  
        ڿ).
        ѡ, һ޿  ҽ Ӭ   ᬽ޿   ,  -
        󡫮 ߻ѵԿ  񫻫ѽү ӫἼ, 󬽯ү   ѽү ߽߬ү 
        ߫󽴯ү.  
              Ӽ ѡ Ǵ. ӿߴ     30 . 
              һѽ ߻᡿:
              ѽѡ ԫӿ  ѫӿ ӿԿ߬ ߬ - ߬ ٬ (ѡ), ѫ ԫӿ -
         (߫᡿), ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ), ӫ ߫-
        ᡿  ߻ѵԿ.
        ѽѡ ߿ - ӫ߼ , ӫ᡿ , ӿҡ, 󫻿, ѫ ԫӿ ߬ 
        (߫᡿), ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ), ߬ ٬ (ѡ).
        ѽѡ ᵿ  - ӫ߼ , ӫ᡿ , ӿҡ, 󫻿, ѫ ԫӿ 
        ߬ (߫᡿), ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ), ߬ ٬ (-
        ѡ).
        ѽѡ Ҽѡ ߬ - ӫ߼ , ӫ᡿ , ӿҡ, 󫻿, ѫ-
         ԫӿ ߬ (߫᡿), ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ), -
        ߬ ٬ (ѡ).
        ѽѡ Ӭ ޿ - ӫ߼ , ӫ᡿ ӡѡ, ѫ ԫӿ ߬ (߫-
        ᡿), ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ), ߬ ٬ (ѡ).
        VIII. ҽ Ӭ ѡ (ѽ. 953-51-41)
        ҽ Ӭ ѡ ӫ ѡ  ߻ѵԴ "ӿӫ᡿", "Һ٬ѡ".
        ҽ ԫ ҬѽѮ Ӭ  ߬ իӫ ѬԿ, Һ٬, ߻ѵ὿ԫ  -
        Կ ԫӿ  ѫӿ Ӭ ѡ, ѻѽѮ.
        ѡ իӫ (ѡ߬) ѽѡ ԫӫ  ѫӿ  Կ Ӭ ѡ, ߬-
         һѡ իӫ. ߴ ᬿ ߻ѵ ߵ,  ӿӫ᡿, ѡ߬ , 
        ߫񪿫, Ӽ, ԫӿ Ӭ󡫮  ߬ Һ٬, ߽Ҫٮ   .  իӫ ᡴԿ -
        ѡ Կ߬   Կ ߬ Ӭ󡫮 Һ٬,  ᬪ ߬ү  Ѫү իӫү ߿-
        . ѡ ӫի ӫߡү Կ   Կ߬ , ү  տѮ߬  ߽Ҫѡ, 
        һ  Ἷ.
        ѡ - Һ٬  ӫ ѡ ӿ ạԫӫ ᡿  ٬, ѫի  -
        Ѯ ӫ߿ ѴѽԿ   ѻѽ, ߽ѽ Ӭ-߬ ҽ, Ҭ-
        ѽ Ӭ ի.
        ѡ, һ޿  ҽ Ӭ ѡ  ᬽ޿   ,  ߡ󡫮 
        ߻ѵԿ  񫻫ѽү ӫἼ, 󬽯ү   ѽү ߽߬ү ߫-
        ү. 
           ӿߴ   30 ,    (߻ѵ 
        "ӫ ӿӫ᡿") -  35 . 
             һѽ ߻᡿:
        ߻ѵ "ӫ ӿӫ᡿" (ѡԫ᡿): ߻ѵ (ӿӫ᡿  ߫᡿ 
         ԫӿ Һ٬, 󬽯 Ӭ-߬ ߬), ߫񪿫 (ѡ, ԡ), ѻᡫ, ӫ-
         ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ), ߬ ٬ (ѡ).
        ߻ѵ "Һ٬ѡ" (὿ᵿ "Һ٬, Ҭѽ ѬԿ ߬ -
        , ѻѽ"): ߬ ߬ ߬, ߫񪿫 (ѡ, ԡ), Ӽ, -
        ᡫ, Ҽ  ӫ ԫӿ ҽ, ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( 
        ѡ), ߬ ٬ (ѡ).
        IX. ҽ 񫻫ѽ ẫ᡿ (ѽ. 785-36-74)
        ҽ ߻ ѡ  ѽѡ ѫ 񫻫ѽ  Ѽ ẫ᡿  ӫ-
        Ἴ, 󬽯Ѯ ߡ ߽߬ ߵ.
        ӿߴ  ߽ ӫ߻᡿, Ҫ  ѡڿ  ޿ Ҽ᡿ӡټ ẫ-
        ᡿Ѽ  ߽үڿ ߻ѵԴ:
                                       -ѡ ߻ѵԿ           	          160000
                                       -ӡ὿Կ                                      021400, 520600
                                       -߬ѡ	           		  20900, 521800
                                       -ԫӿ                                           020700, 520800
                                       -ҽӫ	           			  020600, 520100
                                       - ѽ                                     040100
                                       -Կ		        		  520500
                                       -Կ  Ӽᵿ    		  620000
                                       -񿬫-ӫԿ߬ ѽ       		  040300
                                       -Һ٬ ߬                    	  530100
                                       -                                        033400, 540600
                                       -ӿ                                         040200
                                       -߿ի                                        020400, 521000
                                       -ѡ                                 	  021300, 521300
                                       -ѽѡ                                    022200, 522400
                                       -߫ 	                          031300, 540608
                                       -߫ 	                          350500, 521100
                                       -߫                                        020300, 521200
                                       -                                         021700, 520300
                                       -߫                                         020100, 520400
                                       -ݬ                                         030300, 521600
                                       -ӿ߻ѡ	                          	  021100, 521400
           
              ￵, ѯڿ  ẫ᡿  ߻ѵԿ,  Ҭᡡ  ӿѡ , ᬪ ӿ-
        ߴ  ѡ  ӫἼ "ج߻  Կ ѫ"   񿻽  ӫ߿ -
        ѻԫ.
             ѡ ԡ. Ӽ ѡ - ӡ, , ᡵ. ӿ  ѡ ߿ ӫ-
        ߴ    .  ߿ ߬ߴ ѡ, ӿѽ ٻ޿  ѡ .
             ӫ ѡ 2,5-3 . ū ᡿ ߴ 񿻽  ẫ᡿ 񫻫ѽ ( Ѽ)  
        ӿѡѼ 񫻫ѽ ὿ᵿ "ج߻  Կ ѫ". 俻   ѡ ӫ-
        ߿,  ԡԿ ẫѽ ѴѽԿ  Կ ѫ (ѻ᡿ ԫ -
        ߽󡫮 ҽ  Ѯ ެ, ѫ߬ ߵ -  Ѯ ߻ѵ  Ѯ ެ)  -
         һѡ  ߻ .
            һѽ ߻᡿: ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ӫߴ  
        6.09.2005 .  10.09.2005 .  Ѽ ӫѡ ߻᡿  ߽ү ѡ ѪԿ  -
        ߴ.
            髺 ᡵ ѡ. ūӫԿ   http: //do.pstbi.ru
        ūԫѽ ѽѡ (ѽ. 953-92-53)
        ѽѡ  ԫ   ҽ  ߻ѵԿ . ѡ  ѽѡ 
        󬽯    ,  ԫټ ӫߴ һѽ ߻᡿  . 
        ѡ ԡ (   ,  ٮ Ѽ ѽ).
        ӫ ѡ  ԫѽ ѽѡ - 1 .  ūԫѽ ѽѡ ҽ -
         ѡ (Ӭ-߬ ެ) 2-3 . ѡ ӫߴ  ӡ Ѽ 2-3   ѽ.
        һѽ ߻᡿:
        -   Ҽ᡿ӡ ҽ -  ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ,
        -  ҽ Ӭ  - ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ, ӫ߼ ߬ 
        ,
        -  ҽ Ӭ ѡ (Ӭ-߬ ެ) - ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ-
        , ߻ѵ, ߫񪿫.
        һѽ ߻᡿ ӫߴ  ѡԴ. ū Ѻҽ  һѽ ߻᡿ ᬽߴ 
         ߫ ߽ѽѼ  ߴ ѡ. Ὣ ᡴԿ  1 ԴӴ. 
        ū ᡿ ѡ  ūԫѽ ѽѡ ӫߴ ߻᡿  Ӽ Կӫ᡿, -
        ҽ ԫӫ ߴ   Կӫ᡿.  ᡡټ ԫ Կӫ᡿ ӿѡ  -
          Ѽ   Ѽ ԡ , ,  ѽ᡿,    ߬ ݬѡ. 
        XI.  ѽѡ (ѽ. 785-94-06)
        ߽߬, ߿߬  ߬ ҽ
         ߽߬ ҽ  ѽѡ ӿߴ ԫ ѡ  ᬫ ߽󡫮 Ӭ.
        һѽ ߻᡿: ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ), ߬ 
        ٬ (ѡ), ԫӿ ɫ߿  1917. (ԡ).
        һѽ ߻᡿   ѽѡ ӫի ߫ 1.09.  12.09.2005.  Ѽ ݬѡ  -
        ߽ү ѡ ѪԿ  ߴ. 䫬Ҽѡ ӿߴ  1.06.2005 .  31.08.2005 .
         ѡ   ѡ Ἣԫѽ   Կ߬ ԫ  ߫-
        үڿ , ٻ ѡ .  Ѽ ѡ ߿   ѽѡ ӫի 
           .
        ѡ ᡵ ѡ: Ѽӫ, ӿ, ɫԫ--䫡, , , ѽ߬, 
        , ٬, Ѫ ѽ, ӫ߬-߬, ὿. Ӽᵿ  ߽ ӿ-
              ߫үѼ տ һѡ.
            
             
             ӿѽ Կ
           ѡ.    . ԫ ᬫ . ԡ ѡ. ū ӿ . 
        ߽ѡ ѡ. ꬫ,  ߼߽  󫻿ߡ ߫ѡԿ. ǡѽ, տ ߡ ߿. 
        ԫ .  ߽ .
           Կ. իԡ .  (50  90 ὼ). ԡ  ( 
        ߻, "١ Ի޿"  .). , ѡ  ߻, ӿ  ټ. ѡ  -
        ӡ . ᡫ    ԫ ӿѡ.
        ѡ ԫӿ ի   
        տ 
        ѡ  - 񿼫 . ѡ Ѽ - 񿼫 . ѡ   -
        Ѯ. 忺  Ѯ  . իѡ. ū߽ իѡ  ԫ᡿ ߿ѽ. ūѼ 
        ߻  Կ իѡ  Ѯ. ῡ  ѽ. ūԫ. 忺 쫴   Ѯ ߽ ԫ. 
        ԫѡ 󿽫߬  Ѵ Ѯ. ūѡ 񫽫. . ѡ    
          ᡡ. ѽ   ⫼. ӿѡ   . ѡ .   -
        . ѡ ᬫ ῡѡ ԡ. ߿. ߿  . ᡿ ߿    -
        ѡ ᬫ  ѼѮ  . ԫӿ  . ߬ . Ѯ.   
        ի   . ի  Ѻ Ӽ    . 濡߬ ᬫѽ. 
        欿. ӫԡ ᡿ . ٮ . һѡ   Ѽ ԫᡡү. . 
        ѫ. ߫. ҿ. ԫӿ . ҽ, ٮ Ѯ߬ . ū   ⫽.  -
        .  櫽. ѽѡ Ѯ߬   : Ѯ߬  ´߬. ӫӫ. ӫӫ 꽿. 
        ӫӫ ཿѮ. ӫӫ ꫡ. ѡ ´߬ . Ѯ߬ . ӫӫ ῴ. ѡ -
        Ѯ߬ . ӫӫ Ѽ. 󿽫߬ ѡ. ӫӫ ѺѬ. ӫӫ ᡿. Һ ӫӫ -
         - ǡ᡿, Ǻӿ  ´ -   󿽫߬. ѡ 󿽫߬ . ߬-
        ߿߬ . ӫӫ ᡿   󿡫. 髺ѡ   ѡ 󿽫߬  -
        ӫѡ ԫӫ . ߬ .   ѡ ſ᡿  ߬ ٬. -
          . ᬬѿ. ɿ߬ . ѫ ᡿ ߿ѽ. Կ  Ѽѡ  ɫ-
         ߻  ӿ.
        ٮ 
        ɫ ԫ  ӿ. ѡ   ԫ  ӿ.   ӿ  -
        ߿. 髺ѡ ǡѽ  ӫѡ . ѡ ԫ  ӿ. ūѡ ԫ 
         ӿѯ 񡫮 ཿ. ɫ ᡡ . ɫ ӿԫ. ūѡ . 
        ѡ ߻.     ѡ ѡ. 髺ѡ  . ӫ   . 
        ӫ ᡡ . ѡ  ӿ.  ӿԫ  ١  ߬ѡ   . 
        ѡ  ӿ ӫ    ѡ.    ӿ. ᡿ ԫүڿ  
        .   ӿ  쿬񿼫.   ӿ  Ӵ. ߵѽѡ ١ ӵ. 
        ߵѽѡ ߽ѡ ӿ Ѯ һ. ߵѽѡ իҬ. ᡿ ừԫ. ӡ ӫ-
        : ừ ѡ,  ӫ߽ Ѽ,  ѫҪѡ ,  ӫѡ ,   
         Ѽ,  󿽫 ѡ  ,  ߿ ,  ١,  ѫի񿼫Կ  ѽ. 
        濽      - ߵѽѡ ߽ѡ  ӡҼ. ߵѽѡ ߽ ߫ԡ. ߬-
        ѡ ١ ῡ߬ . ӿ  Ѵѽ. ӿ  ӡ . ӿ  ߬. ӿ  -
          ѽ.  ӿ    Ѽ. ӫѡ ӿ. ߬ѡ ӿ . Ѭ-
        ѡ  ᡡ .  ѡ ӫ ߬ սἿ. ѡ  ӿ  
        . ߵѽѡ ӿ Ѵ. ߻᡿ . ߬᡿  ӿ   ᡿, 
        ߼Կ  ߬ѡ. ѫѡ ߻. ߵѽѡ ҡԿ.  ừ  ӿ - -
             Ѽ. ӿ  񡫼 Ӵ.  ӿԫ    ӿ. ѡ 
        ߿ѽѼ ӿ   ҽ   ԫ  ӫ߽ѡ  Ѯ ӿ. ԫ ѡߴ  -
        ѽ "" ߻  ӿ. ߵѽѡ ߽ѻӫѡ. ӿ  Ҽ . ӫ-
          ѡ.  ӫѡ . ӿ  񡫼   ѺὫԡ ῼ. ߵѽѡ 
        ߴԿ ӫѡ. ӿ    . ӿ    ӿ. ߽ѡ Ѯ. ӿ  
        񡫼 ١. ߬᡿  ӿ       ԫӫ ӿ. ӿ  ߴԿ -
        . ӿ  ,  ޡ . ߬ѡ Ӵ. ի ߻ѡ  ὿. ӿ   
        󿡫Ӵ.   ӿ  ӫ:  Կ ӯ,  ߬ѡ   ӫ ߿ѽ 
         ӿѴ  ѡ ԫ ߿-ӿ. ѻ . ѽ . ᮡ Ӵ. 
        ѡ  ӿ   ߿߬  Կ   .   ߫ ӿԫ 
         ѡ. ѡ ừԫ . ѽ .  ӿԫ    ſ.  ӿԫ 
           Ӵ ӫ. ū߽񡿮   ߫ ӿԫ  ſ. ԡٮ   ӿ  ⫽-
        . ߻Կ  ߼  ӿ. 桴Կ ߫   ѡ ߿ѽ. ߬ѡ  ӿ. 
        ѡ ߬  ӿ Ҽ ѡ  Կ  ؼ. ѡ  ӿ Ѽ ừԫ 
          ѡ, ӫ ừԫ . ѡ  ӿ ừԫ    ừԫ. -
          ӿ ӿ  ƿӿ߬  ᡫѡ Ѭߴ   ừԫ. ѡ -
         ӿ ừԫ   Ѽ Կ ѡ. 髺ѡ ߻.  ԫ   ừ-
        ԫ. 忺  ӿԿ. ⫡ѡ   ӿԿ. . ѡ . ѡ . 
        ߻ѡ Ѯ ӿ. ǻԫ߬   ὿. ӫ߬  ừԫ. Ԭ -
        ѡ  ӫ   . ừԫ.
        ԫӿ Ӭ
        ѫ ѡ   ӿԿ. ѡ ὿. Ѭѡ ѡ. 髺ѡ -
         ߻.   ӿԿ. ߿. ѽѡ߬ ߫. Իѡ ɿ߬ Ӭ. ӫѡ 
        ߽. ѡ ߿. ߬ Ӭ   ԫԿ. ⫡ѡ  ߽. ѡ ӫ߿߬.
        ӿԿ߬   
        ạѡ ѽѬ. ѡ Ԭӫѡ. ѡ ѡ Ԭӫѡ. ѡ 
        ᡿  ѡ ſ᡿. 濼 .  ѡ. ῡ ߽󡫮 Ӭ. ߴ ừѮ 
        ᬫ . ừ ѡ.
        ߽Ҫѡ ߽󡫮 Ӭ
        ūԿ  ߽Ҫѡ.    ӫ. ꬫ  . ѡ߽Ҫѽ   ѡ 
        Ѫ (ѡ). ѡ  . ūӴ Ӭ ߽Ҫѡ. ԫٮ  ߽Ҫ-
        . ѽٮ  ߽Ҫѡ.   ߽Ҫѡ. ߽Ҫ . ѡ. ѡڡ 
        ѡ (ӡ  ѡ). ѡ  (ӫ߬,  ѡ,  ӡ). 
         . ߿ ѽ. 䡿  ߫ѡ.  Ѫѫѡ ӫ.  ԫ -
        Ѽ ӿ. ᪡Ѯ޿ ѡѮ ӿ ߫ѡ ߽ ῡ. . ūѡ 
        ߫޿. Ԭ ѡ  ߫ѡԴ ߽Ҫѡ  . ѽ ū. ѽ ѽ ū-
        . ԡ 񼿵. ѽ . ѽ Ŵԡ. ѽ . 񡿬 տ - Խ 
        ߬ѡ ӿԫ. ҡߴ 񡿬 Ӭ . ӫӿ ҡߴ 񡿬    
        ᡿.
        ӫ ߫᡿ ӫߴ  Ѽ  ӫ.  潫߬ "ᬫ "
             (ѡ  ԡ)
               
        
             ӿѡ, һڿ  ѽѡ ߬ , ԫ-ӿԿ߬   ӫᡫ-
        Ӽ߬  ߬ ҽ,  ᬪ  ѽѡ ߿߬    
        һѽ ݬѡ  ߬ ٬   (ѡ) ߴ ߫ѡ  ӫѡ-
         ߬  XIX-XX .,  ᬪ  "ү" Ѽ. 
             ӿѡ ѫի񿼫  ӿѡԿӫߴ  Ѭ ӫѡ ߬  I- 
        .,  ᪡Ѯ޿ ӿԿ߬    ٬Ἷ ӫ߬ ὿. 
             ѽټ ߴ  ߻᡿ ߡ Կ ѫӿ : ѡٮ 
        , ߿Ѽ ẫ, ӡٮ ߫; ӿ, ӿԼ, Կիӡٮ Ẽ, ӫ; -
        , ݬ߻, 󴺬, , ҽᵿ, 󴺬; ߯, ; Կ, Ѽ, ӫѼ, Ѵ; -
        , ݻ, ѡ, , ѫ, ѡ, ߬᡿  .
             ѡ 񫽪  ỿᡫ իӫ޿ ӡټ ٬,  ԫٮ  ߬Կ Ѽ 
        Ѽ.
        
         :
             . Ҭ߬ "", "ߡ", "߻᡿", "", " Һ ү, Ὣ:", "Խ", "ث-
         ", "ٵ ƫѡ", "ߡ "
             . ٽ "  ū", "髽  ӡ", "", "ӫ  ߿", "Ѭ  Ѯ", "潫 
         ", "  ѼҪ ӡ", ", Ҭ  "
             . ӿ "  Ҽ"
             . ެ "ỿ߬ ", "ūԿ ѽ", "ӫ߬", "ſ ", "ѡ ġ", 
        "ٮ 񡿬", "ū"; "髽", " Ѵѽ ١ٮ:", " ӯ", "ἴԡ", "ū-
        ", "ū  ԫ", "ū", "ѡ", "ū,  , !..", "ū߽  Կ:", " -
          Ӵ:", " ӫ ӿ  ѽ:", "ӿ ", "߻᡿", " ի Һ 
        Ѫ  :", "  :  ,  :", "ӫ    ҽ Ҽ:", "-
        ", "ؽ", "Կտ, ߫ѡ   Ѽ ߫", "   ެ  :", "佴 
          :", " ſѼԿ", "Ե ١  ѡ ѻӫ:", "  ӫ, 
        Ҽ,  ӫ:", "ٽ :  񡿬 :"
             . Ӽԫ "ӫ  Ѽѡ"; "ӫӫ", "Ҽ", " ߼ ", "ǡѽ", "Ԭ Կ-
        ", " 󫽡ߴ ѽѯ :", "", "ӡ", "櫡", " ", "ի   
         ӫ:", "ԫ", "ӿ", "Ѽ", "ӿ", "ߡ ӫ һ ޡ", "ӫ񿡫"
        .  " ޿", "󿺫", "ѽ", " ҽ", "  ԫ  俬"
        A. ӫ߬ "ӫ", "ի ԫ", "  - ߫Ѽߴ"
        . ѡ "Ե  Կ", "ỿ߬ իԡ", "ߴ", "Կիѡ  ӫ"
        . ⫡ӫ "", ""
        . ӡ߬ "ԫ ѽ?"
              . Ѭ߫ "諼  ߿  իӫޫ", "ӫ, ߡٮ ", "ѽѺ ӫ", "߬ ѡڿ-
        "; "ɫ", "ѡ Ѻٮ :", "ū  ᡿", "Һ", "Ẽ޽ѡ   -
        Ѻ", "ƿ޿", "ٵ  ", "ߪ ", "   ӫ Ѯ:", "  ѡڿ, 
         !..", " - ٮ ԫ:"
              . ٬-ӿ "ԫӿ  ӫ", "߻ ⫽", "  Ҫ  ѡὫ 
        ӫӼ", "Ѽٮ ߬", "俬 ڿ", "諡", "-὿", "  -
        " 
              . Ư "", "ѡ ӫ", "ԡ ", "ѡ ", " Ѽ  ,  -
        :", "翼 ӫ ߴ:", "", " ԫ, ԫ  , ӿӫ:", "  Ѽ ԫ:", 
        "ūݺ", ",  ѡ  :", "ӫѮ :", "Կ  ѽѡ:", "  ѡ 
        ...", " ɫ߿  ...", "  ᡫ :"
               .  "", "     :", "ѻ,  :", "ѡ ߬", " 
        !   !..", "Һ", " ӿѽ    ӿԫ:", "ԫ ӫ,  :", "ѡ", " 
        ҡ ߿", "߫  ޽  ӫ ѡ:", "濴 . ҡ ٽ  :", "ɫ-
        ", "꺼ѡ ,  Ѫ:", "   ѽ ӫ:"
        . ߬ "", "ӫᡡٮ ᡡ"
              . ƫԫ ". ӫ. ס", "ԫ߬ ߬", "髮  ", "-", 
        "ū߽ "
        . ԫ߬ "һѡ  ᡿"
              . ի "ꫡ", "٪󡿬", " ", "", "ѡ", "տѮ", "", "ѽ 
        ߽ߡԿ", "ѽѬ  Խ", "ѻ", " N6", "䫼  Ѻ", "ӡٮ ", "ԫ -
        ", "Ҫ", " ", " իߴ", "  Կ", "  ߫"; "ᮬ", "ӿ -
        ", "ޡٮ "
              .  " ", "Ѽѡ ߽", " ", "ѽ", " տ  ѡ", 
        "ߡ  櫬", "ߡ  ԡ"
              . ҡ "Ĭᴡ ", "ǡԫ߬ ", "忺 ѡ", "", "ի", "ѽѬ 
         -ᡵ߬"
        . һӿ "Ľߴ", "ѽٮ ѽ", "ū񿡫", "ԫٮ ߽", "ӿ"
              . ռԫ "ѬѼ", "", "Ҫ ս ѡ Һټ:", " Ҭ  Ѽ :", 
        "Һ", "ӫٮ ӫ", "漴ѡ", "  ӫԫ, ӫ :", " ӿ޽    -
        Կ:", "ū޽.  󫽡ѡ  :", ", ,   :", "Ӭ,  ի,  :", "-
        ", "Һ", "ū" 
              . ᴬ߬ "ᡴ", "ᬫ  ", "ӫޫ!", "Ѯ-󫡫", "ſ  -
        ", "ӫ޿ߴ", "ѯ ѡ", "  ߻Ѭԫӫ  ݺ"
              .  "ѡ", "櫽ٮ ", "Ѻᬫ", "欿", "ެ ѽ  Ӭ󡫼 ի:", 
        "ӿ", "ҼӬ, ҼӬ ޡ:", ", ҽ, , Ѭ:", " Դ,  ,  ߽-
        :", "ɫ߿", "Ѭ ߬ҽ. , Կ ѡ:", " ѽѺ ӫ"
              . Ҽ "", "ĺӫ ", "ġ", " Ἷ", "ӫ", "Ѯ", "  ", "ᡵ ", 
        " "
              . ѽ "Ѭ ,  :", "Ѫ Ѫ:", "Silentium", " , ѽٮ  
        :", "迡Ѽԫ", " ӿ,  ߼:", "ռԫ", "   ,  -
         :", "߫. ⫼.  :", "   ѡԫ :", "櫽", " 
        ӫ߿,  ߫ ԫ:", " ߽ ٽ, ԫ  իѽ ߬:", " ԫ, ԫ  Ҭ   Ҽѽ 
        Ӫ:", "  Ἷ ٴ Կ޿:"
              .  " ", "䫪", "", "Ѻ տ", "Ѽ ӡ", "", " ,  
        ҽ߬ :" 
              . ѡ "Ԭߴ   ٮ  ӿ:", "ٻ Ѽ ߡ:", " ٮ!  
        ߡߴ:", "ū  ߬ ߼ѡټ ", "⫮ , ,  ӫ:", " ԫ ,  ѽ -
        :", " ߡ  Ҽ ӫ:", " ߡ ҽ :", "  Ѯ  ѻ-
        :", " ߪ, ӫڿ :", " ѡ  ᡫ:", " , ա ٽἿ:", "-
        ӿ ӫ :",  "߿߬ Կ", " ѯ,  ,  :", "ſ  ѡڿ"; 
        "ǡ ", "ӡٮ ѽѬ"
              . ӡ "䫬ԫ "; ".  ӡ  :", "", " .   
        :", "ߡ", "ӿ ", "񫪡", " ӫ    :", "Ļѽѡ ݺ", 
        "꼻ӫᵿ", "Ļѽѡ ", "", "  -     ẽ:", "ѡ"
             .  "  ", " ެ", " Կ, ỿᡡټ  ᡫ:", ",  ѡ 
        ի:", " ߬  һὫ   Ѻ:", "  :", "ѽ - ӫ ӡ:", "߽ 
         ӫ ٽԫ", "   Ѽ - ߬ Ӵ:", "Ž ӫ߽", "ٮ 
        ѵ , ӵٮ !..", "ӫ  ᡬ:", "", "Կտ  ӿ"
        . ԫ߬ "ū  ", "竽 ӫ", "߬ ԫӫ"
        . ӿ " ߫", "ѡ ", "  ѻᡡ Կ", " ѻ"
        . ѽ "ԫ ߻"
        . ҽᬫ " ", "ɫ ", "ỿ߬  "
        . ի "ƿտ 䫡", " ѽѬ", "ġ ὿  ɫ"
        . 濼 "  " 
        . ߬ "߿ Ӭ", "  "
        . ߻Կ "ӫ᡿  ӫ"
        . Ҭ޿ "", "", "ū߬ӿҼ", "Ѻ", "὿ ߡ"
        . 櫽ѡ١ " ѡ  ѡ߫", "ѡ "
        .  "Ӵ ߡ"
        . ٬ "ѽ߬", "ԡ"
        . ߿ " ӿ  Կտ..."
        . ѽ "ӿ ѽ"
        . ǮԼԫ "ᡡ ", "ѽٮ ӫի"
        .  ""
        A. ӿ󬿡 "  "
        ƣ  
              B. ѽ߬ "ѡ ǽѬ ެ" ( 8, 9), "Կիѡ .. Ӽԫ", "-
        ӫ  Ѽѡ"
              . ӡ߬ "߬ ѽѬ  rendez-vous", ""  "ӫ". ѡ ߬  
        .. ƫԫ"
        . ⫡ӫ " Ӻ᡿"
        . ӫ "ԫ ᬫ ڿ?", "Ѽ .    Ѽ "
        . Ҫ "". ɫ .. ⫡ӫ"
        . ǡԫ "߼Ѯ  Ѽѡ"
           
        1. ߬   . ӿ "  Ҽ".
        2. Ѽ   ݺ  ӿ . ެ.
        3. Ѯ-ѡ ѫế ݼ . Ӽԫ "ӿ".
        4. ѼѮ ѡԿ  ӫ . ѡ "Ե  Կ".
        5.   ӫ . ⫡ӫ "".
        6.   ѡ . ԫ߬.
        7. ߫߬ Կ  ӿ . ѡ. 
        8. Ѯ-ѡ ѫế ߬ . ҡ "߻  -ᡵ߬". 
        9. "  ѽ , Ҽ  " (. Ἲ). 
        10. 衿  Ѯ .
               
        
             Ӽ һѽ ߻᡿  ߬ ٬ (ѡ) ߴ ѡ. һѽ-
         ѡ  ӿѡ, һڿ  ߽߬, ߿߬, ԫӿ߬, -
        ߬ ҽ,  ᬪ  ҽ Ӭ   Ӭ ѡ. 
              1. Ѭ  ѡ ߴ  . 
        2. ߡ   - ӫ   ߫  ߫Ѽѡټ ٬ټ ӼἿ 
        ߿ 󫺼 Ѽ ի Ѭ. 
        3. 꺽ѡ 񫽪       ի񡫼 . 
        4. ӿ ԫ ѡ 񫽪 ӫ ߽ ԫ ի񡫼 Ѭ, ..  ߫Ӫ ݽѼѡԫ ߫-
        ѡ. 
        5. ߫ 󡿼᡿  Կ    ߽ 񽫪ѡ ի Ѭ, ԫ ѡ 
        ѽ ᬫѡٮ .
        6. ѫի񿼫 ᡫ ѽڿ Կ Ѭ (᡿, Ҫѡ, ᡿). 
        7. ӿ  ѡ Ѭ Ҫ ߫  ѡ (ԫٮ ӿ ԫӫ ѡ ߽ ԫ-
        )  ԫ, ԫ  ޿ ߽ѽ ߫Կ  ԫ  ѡ ٽ ߫ѡ Ѭ-
        ԫ , ԫ, ᬫ, 񫽪  ߬  Ѫ ߫. 
        8. ƫ  Ѻ޿  ѡ 񫽪  ѡ Կ߬ ὿: , ѡ ߫ѡ 
        (ѡ, Ἷ, , ӫ,  ԡ, ѫ߬ ᡿  .), ޿  ߻ѵ-
         ߽  ӫ. 
        9. Ҫ ᡫ, ѡ ᬿ ߽ ѻԡ, ỿ᡿ ᬿ ߽ ٺ ߫ѡ, ԫ Ѵߡ 
         ҡᵿ. 
        10.  񽫪ѡ  Ӵ   Ὣ Ѫ ѡ  񽫪ѡ  ѡ  -  
        ߫  Ἷ. 
        11.  ѡ ߽ ߫᡿  .  Ӵ, ߽ ߬ ߴ  1  (, ), ԫ 
         񫽪  ߫ѡ  Ѽ Ѭ. ߽  ӿѡ  "ӫߴ"  3  (, , , 
        ), ԫ   ѡ     񫽪 Կ  3- . 
        12. 꺽ѡ    ỿᡫ ӫԬ, Կټ 񽫪ѡ   񫽪 ߫Ӫ 
        ߽ߡ ԫӫ. 
        
           
        
        . 
        Ǵ 
                   ӿߴ    ạѡ. 髬 ѡ ӫԿ὿  ١, ѡ 
        իἿ  Ἷ. Ԭ   Һ ӫ,  ԫ  ߽, ӫѡ ߬ ᡴ-
        .  ڿ  ߼ӿ  ԫӫ  ᬫѵ, ߡ Ử, ӫԿߴ    ߬:
        - ӿ,  ӿ  ӫԿߴ?
        - ԫ Ѽ?
        - Ѽ ѡѪ:  ߽ ټߴ; ,   ߼ ӫ.
        - ԫ   !
        -    ԫ? - ڿ Ҭ ԫ  ԫ.
        -    , ӫ ѽ ѻ  ߡ .
        -  -: ԫ .
         ѽ  Ἣ ѽ    ѽ , ԫӫ ӿ ٽ ߻  ѡٮ ի. 
        ڿ ۴ߡ , ԫ  Ὣ . 
         ߽  Ἣޡ ѽ  , ԫ ѽ  ὿  ѡ.   ߴ  
         ߿ѡ;  Ѵߴ ߴ Ѽѡ  ߽үѮ ᡵ  ѽѽ  ߬.
        ڿ ߬;     ԫ.  Ѫ Ѽ    ᡫߴ ߿. -
         Կ  ѽү , ԫ Դѽ ټ, ӫ߽  ѻѡ  .   -
         Ѽ  ߼Ὣ ߫ ߡѪټ Ѽ.  Ѻ. ", ӿ, - ӿ ڿ, - : -
        !":
         ҽ  Ԭ:  ٽ   ի.  ٽ  ᬫ ѻ ếѽԿ, ԫ 
        ߴ ѡټ; ߡ ٻ ѡ  ѽ;  ޽  -  ߬ӫ ὿. "ԫ    
        ?" - ߻ӫ߿  ڿ  ӻѡѼ. " ԫ ? -  , ߽Ѻ  , -    
         ὿: ӫ ,   ".   ٽ  ᡿. ѽ   һߴ. " ի ٽ 
         ߽ߴ, - ӿ  ԫ, - ӫԿߴ   ԫٮ , ߴ  ,    
         ". ѽ ٽ .    ὿. Ĭ Ԭ ټߴ ӫ. ѽ ;  ѽ  
         ԫӫ, Ѵ  ի ӿ   ӫ,     ẽ, ӫ ԡ Ҫ-
         ѽ...  ѽ  ԫ-ԫ ӡ. "خ, ڿ! - ӿ , - ߼ӿ: ԫ  ᬫ ӡߴ?" 
        ڿ  ߼ӿߴ. "  , ӿ, - ߬ ,    ԫ, -   ,   -
        ,  ߴ, ԫ ѽߴ. 䫽 ,  󫽬,  ѽѬ".
         ӿ   Ѻᬫٮ , ԫٮ ԫ   ߴ  . Ѻ  
          󡴽  ѽѬ.
        - Ѯ, ٮ ѽѬ! - ӿ Ѽ ڿ. - ᪿ,     ӫ?
        - ӫ-ԫ ;  ԫ   , -  ӫٮ, -  ԫ ԫ?
        - ū߽, Ҫ, - ߬  Ѽ, -     ԫӫ? 髺ߴ   Կ ѡ 
         ?
        - ԫӫ  ᬫ, -  ӫٮ, - ߽ , իѡ  Ѻѡ   Ѭ. 
        , ,  :   ߫ߴ  ӫ.   ᡫߴ  Ѫ,   Կ-
           ӫߡߴ: ԫ Ѽ ӫ  Ѻ.
         ս񡫬ӫ ӿ ѡ. ӫٮ ѽ ӫӡ    ߬ ڿ: ", ߽ -
        ,  Ѭ;    Ѻ".
        -  Ѽ   ? - ߻ӫ߿ ڿ  Ѽ. -    ӫ? : 
         Ҫ, ի  ,   ԫ. - ڿ ߴ  . " Ἣ ѽ, - ߬ , - -
        Ѽ Ҽ , ԫ  ?" - " ԫ, ԫ  ԫ Դҽ, -  ӫٮ, -   
        ߽, ټ աҽ; ,  ". Խ   ԫ  ѡ Ҽ.  ѽѽ -
        ڿ .  Դѽ һ὿   ߡ. Ԭ Կի , ԫ Ѻ  ӫ, ԫ 
            ὿ ԫ  , ԫ  ү ԫӫ. ԫ ի ٽ  ᡿   
        ӡ ӯ. ѽ , ԡ ԫ   .  Կ , ߴ    -
        , ᯬᡡٮ ѡѼ ӿ   Կի Ѻ (590 ߽).
        . 
          (ԫ   1855 )
        髽  ԫ ԫ ٽ   ,  Ҫ Կ  Ѻ  ޫ  Ѻ ,  
          ү-ԫ Դ  . , ԫ  ѽ  ߽, ٽ  Ὣ ߫ạ   ӫ޿-
         󡿼 Խѡ: Ӭԡ Խ   ݬѡ, ѽ,    ߼ ԫ-
        ӿѮ, ٮ ҡ -   Ὣ , ԫ  ѽ, ի   Ѭߡ, Ҫ, ѽޡ -
        .
        - ,    ӿ὿! - ߬ ޿ ,  ,   ᮽ߬ , ޽ 
         󫺬. - ѽ  ӫԴ  ,  Ѯ  Ѽ  쿬߬ Ӽ.   ߴ  
        ,      - Һ,   Ѵ ԫ,   ӿ  ԫ.
        - Ѽ ?   Ѽ, - ߬ 髽. -     ԫ  Կ.  Ҫ  : 
        ӿ٬ . ѽ  ,   .
        -   ի.
        - , Ү, ,  ᮡѮ , Һ, ...
        -  ߫  ի,  Ү...
         ٽ ԫ  Ѽ; Ѻ  ߻ᡡ ڿߴ    ѽ Ҫ Ӭ Կ-
          . ޫ ѽ ᡿ ѿ  Ὣ  ὿  Ѽ.  ޽  . 
        ᬫ-ԫ ѡѵ Ҭҽ ѽ ҪѼ  Ҭ  ӿҽ:
        - ԫ ?
        - 櫽!
        -  ѽѡ !
        -   !  Ҫ.
        -  ߻ӫ߿.
        , Ѽ޿ ߿  , ӿ񡴽ߴ  ѽѽ ӫԿ.
         ӫ޽ ٮ ԫ, 񫪿 󫺬,  ᡫ󿽿  ԫӫ, ԫٮ Ἷ Ҫ 
        ὿Ὣ .  ẫѮߴ  Կ ѡ ߫ ѡ ߬  ,  -
        Ѭ, ԫڿ ,  ѽү ѡ  ٺ ѽѡ 󫽡, ѺѼ ӫի.    ߿ѽ, 
        ߻Կ   , ᬫ-ԫ ѽѬ  񡫮    ԫ-ԫ  ԫ; ,  ԫѼ, -
        ߿   ,  ӫ, ӫ ὿ ޡ Ҭ. Ѫ 󫽡  Ӵ ẽ   
        ԫӫ   Ἣ  髽;  ߫, ޽ѻ Ἷ  , ӫ޽  . ԫ-ԫ   
        ߬ Կ  , ү  Ѽ 󫺬  ի,  ߬,  ԫ 񡿼 ٺ, 
        ὿  .
        - , ´ Ѽѡ! - ߬ ի,   ӫԿ  諺ѽ, - ԫ, Ҫ 
        ߫Ѽ 󿽿?
        -  .    ?
        -  ӫἿ:   ١   ۯ... Ӽ Ѽ    ,   Կ ӫ 
         Ҽ . Խ ߻Ӵѡ! 
        - ū  5-, ?
        - .    󴺫ٮ ҡ:  ޿  -  ӫ.
        髽  ѽὫ Ҫߡ ޡ: Ѽ  Ὣ, ԫ Ѯ ӿԿ ӫ  ߬  
        ӿ  Ӵ  . ԫ ӫ ,  Ҭ Կ, ߫ѡ ٮ ߬ 󫽡, - Ὣ,  -
        ӿ Ѽ, ԫ   ѽ , ԫ      ӫ. ", , Ҫ , Ҫ ѡ 
        ѻ!" - Ҽ , ߫ӫ   ԫ ߽,  ԫ, ԫ  ӫ޽ Ѽ ߬ ừ  
         .
        髽  աҽ  ԫѽ Ѽ  ԫӫ  .
        - ߻! Ҫѽ  ѡ , ѡ ѡ? ߻, Ү ѡ! - ߬  ѻԫ  -
        ѬԿߴ.
        - , Ѽ, 髽, - ߬ ޿ ,  󫺫   . - ѽ ?
        ԿԿ, ӿӪ ѡ 쿬߬ ѿ, , , ӿ߽޿  Ҭ 
        , ޿ߴ Ҫ   Ἷ,   ߬, ὿޿ߴ , ᬫѵ ӿ޽.  Һ὿ , 
        ԫ 5-,  ԫү ạѡ ٽ 髽, ԫ  ,  ޿ , ߼Ӵ  ߡ, Կ  
         Ѽ   5- Կ,     ѯ (558 ߽).
        
        . 
        ɣ . 
                    Ѯ , Ҫѡٮ ѫ٬ѡ ѽѽټ  ߬ټ ի.   
        ի񿽿   ӫԫ   Ӵ, Ѫ ߿  ٬ Ҽᡡ Ѯ  ҫӫ 
        﫡. 諼     ԡԿ. 
        Կ   ԫ  ߴ ٮ,  ѡ 󡿼ѽٮ, Ҽٮ  Խ-
        ٮ Ѽ   ԫ ӫ  ӿ ټ  - . .   ߫  (-
        ߬ Ҫ !)  ѻѡ 󽴽ߴ, ᡴߴ  ӿ:
        -  Ү?
         ԫ  ᡫ  Ҫ    ( ٮ , 񫽪 ;  ߽񡿮   
             !). ߫ ӿ߫ һ, ӫ ӿᡡ  ӫ Ѭ, , 
        ѡ , ެ ߡ ߬ . 
        -   ڿ, ,  Ѫ Ѽѡ     Կ: 
         Ӵ, ԫ  ի,   Ѯѽ, իӫޫ,  ԫ . . Կ  
        ᡴߴ  ի.    񿡫.    Ѽ, Ѽߴ ,  ߬ Կ -
          ߫ѡ.  Ὣ ,     , 󡿼ѽ ѽѽ, ԫ  
            ԫ  Ѭ :   ߼޽ѡٮ Ҭ,    , ԫٮ  -
        , ԫ   ߽ ѽ,  ԫߴ   ߽Ҫ,  ߴ  ѡӫ  ߬ 
        ӿ.
         ѡү, ӡ ᡡү  ( )  Ӵߴ.
        - ԫ   -ԫ  ὿? 
        - ūӡ ӯ, .
        .       ӫԫ, ߽ԫ ߬ ,  ѡ   
        ѽ  Һ٬,  ߽   ի  Ӵ ߫ ټ Ἷ.
        ԫ 󿡫  ߫Ѽ ѻի.     ᡿   Һ , ԫ Ἷ տ  
           ,  񡫼 .
         ߬ѡ . Ҽѡ, ӿ߿ ѡ  ү Ѻ. ū ᡿ Ѯ   -
        տ ߫὿  ӫ Ѻ -    ߬ Ӵ, Һ  񽿡 ߫ , Ҭ-
        ѡ 󫻿. ⫽ ԫ ߬ ԫ Ҽѡ߬. Ѭ  ի   ѵ,  
           ԡ.
         Ѭԫӫ Ѽ ὿ . ´, Ҽѡ, Ҫ ի   .   ѽ,  ѻ-
        ߬߬  Կ  ټ ӫἿ  ,  Ҭ,  ߫ի,  񡴽, ѽ ի.
        . ´ Ӫߴ  ԫ  ߬ ӫ񡫮 ӫԫԫ  , ԫӫ Ҫ ߴ 
        ӿ߫. ᬫ ѡ  ѻ ߽Ҫ ,   ӿԫ ԫὼ,   ѽ Ҭ,  
          Ѽ ,  ߽,  Ѽ  "  Կ ߻". ū߽   ߽ѡ 
        "ԫڿ " Ҽѡ ߴ,  ߴ . ߫ѡ Ѻ ѽѿ Ӵ , ԫ 
         ߴ  Ѽѡ,  տ ӿ ԫ ԡ ѡ: ߴ , ԫ ԫ  
        ԫ,  ԫ  ѡ ԫ   . 
          ѽ ѵ   ѡ;   ὿ "Ѻ",   󫿼 Ἷ  ٽ 
        Ҫ ߴ  "ԫ Կ" Ӵ. ߬ߡٮ, ԫ  ҽѡٮ,  ߫ԫ  ߫ ӿ-
        ߫ һ, ߬ ս  ߫  -  ԫ, ԫ ὿   ,  ᬬ, ӫ ߬ -
         (    ). ỿ  ԫ  ٽ ߫ ѡ ѡ.  ὿    ( 
        񡿬).  Ѻ һ    Ѫѽ Ӵ:   Կ   
        . ԫ Ҽѡ   Կ,  ԡ, տӿԫ  ӫի ߫ѡ ԫ , ԫ 
         ߽ Ӵ߫, ߴ  ҽެἿ. 
        ཿ  ᡿. Ĭ,  񡴽, Ҽѡ ѽ . ߴ   -   ѡ  
        ߽ѡѼ ս.    ԫ  ߫Ӫ᡿.  ߡ Ὣ  ἴԿ, ԫ  񿡫 ӫ-
        ի񿽿  ߽ . Ҽѡ,     ӫ  ߫Ѭ ߽ѡ-
         ս,   ӿѼ ᡫ  ߫ , ԫ      (604 ߽).
                
          (ԡ)
        һѽ ߻᡿  ߬ ٬ (ԡ)  һڿ  ѽѡ ߬ -
         ߬ ҽ,  ᬪ   ѽѡ ߬ ҽ. 
        ӿ ԫ ӿѡ ѫի񿼫 : 
        - ѫԿ߬ ѡ  ߬ ٬; 
        - ѽѡ ߡ Ѽ 񿡿 ٬   ӿᬫ; 
        - ߬  ҡᵿ . 
        ӿѡ ѡ ᡿, һڿ 񫽪:
        - Ѻ޿  ߽  ߫  үڿ ߬ Ἷ  ҡ-
        ᵿ Ӽ 񽫪ѡ  Ѭ; 
        -  ߬  ҡᵿ Ӭ, .. ի  ߽ Ἴ,   -
        ѡ - ߼߽ Ѻ, үڿ ѽѡ Ἷ ѻ᡿,  ӿ ҼѡԿӫᡡ 
        ѡӿ; 
        -  ( ѽѡټ ӿ) ٬ 񿡿: Կ߬, Ѭ߿߬, Ѽ-
        , ߽ẫѽ, ߬, ߿߿߬; 
        -  ӿԿ ٬ 񿡿  ӫѮ  һӫ  ( ѡټ   
        );
                 - Ѭԡ ߻ӿ ԡү  ѡү ; 
                 - Ҽԡ һ ߽  ѫ; 
        -  ẫ Ӽ ߽;
        - Ἣԡ ӫ 񽫪ѡ ạ Ҭ  ӿѡ   ;
        - ӫ߿ ߽  ߫  ݻ߬ ӼἿ; 
                -  ߫Ѽѡټ ټ Կԫ. 
        
           
        Ѽѡٮ ߬ ٬ - ᬫӡٮ  ԫӿ߬ Կ ߬ ٬. ӫ-
        ߬ Ἤ Կ "߫Ѽѡٮ ߬ ٬". 
        Ѽѡٮ ߬ ӡٮ ٬ - ٬ ߬ ӫ, ѡٮ ٬ ɫ߿߬ 
        ᵿ, ٬ Ѫᵿ ѡ ӫ ɫ߿  ٬ Ѫҡӫ ѡ.
        ūԿ  ӡ ٬. ӿᬿ ӡ ٬. Ļѽѡ ٬ Ӽ. 
        Ӭ߽߬  ߬ ٬.
        ūԿ  Կ ٬. ߡ Կ ߬ ٬   ӿԿ. ٮ Կ. -
        -ѽ Կ. Կ߬ Կ. ӡ . ٬ ѡ . 
        Ѭ߿ ѪԿ (Ѯ)  ԿԿ߬ ѡ.
        ƿ Ѭԫ   Խѽ ӿᬿ. 
        Ѯ޿ ѡ ѡ- ӫ޽  ߫ѼѡԿ.
        . .  
        Ѭ߿  Ҭ. ūԿ  Ѭ߿. 潫ӡٮ ߫  ߿Ѽ ٬. 
        Ѭ߿߬ ѡ ߽. 񡫺   ߽.
        Ӵ  ѡߡ ѡ. ߡ Կ Կ ѡߡ ѡ (ԫ, ߿Ѭ, 
        ).
        濡  ԫ  ߬ ٬: ߿ᵿ  ҡ.
        ļ: Կ  һѡ.
        ԿԿ߬ ҡ ߿, ԫ, . 
        ѡᵿ ߬ Ѭ߿  Ѽѡ 󫺡ѡ   һѡ. 信Ἷ Ѭ-
        ߿߬ ߿Ѽ ٬. ǬԿ ӫ  Ѭ߿ ߬ ٬  Ѫ XX-XXI ԫԿ. 
        ǬԿ  ߿ Ѭ߿. ޿ ߽: Ὼ  ԫӿ;  Կ. ѫ   
        ạԿ. 
        ѡ ҡ Ὼ, ԫӿ  ѫ. 
        Ž Ѭ߿ ߬ ٬  ԫ ѡ  ӫիѡ. 
        ߬ ߬ ߽. 
        ῼ᡿     ٬. ߫ ԫ ӫ߽󴡿  Ѯ޿ ῼ-
        ᡿.
        櫵  ӿԫӿ ߽ѡ ߬ Ѭ߿. Ѭ߿ ѡӫ, ߻ѵ (ӫ-
        ߿὿, Ӽ), ӫԫ, , Ѭԡ. 
        Ѭ߿ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ.
        ѫ  ѫ. ԫ ѫ. Ѯ߬ ѫ  ߬ ٬. 
        Ѭ߿: ߡ Կ ߽Ѯ. ƫ ߽ӿ ߬ ٬. 
        . . . 
                      Կ  Ҭ. 
        Կ߬ 񿡿 ߬ ٬. 
        Ҭ    ӿԿ. ߡ  ߫ߡ Ҭ. ߡ 󫡬  տ,   
        .
        潫  ѡ. ѡ ߽ߡ  ẫ. 
        󫻿᡿ Ѻӡ ߡ  ӡ ߽. 
        ѡ տ  󫡬 ߫ߡ  . 
        ѻӫ߿ ߫ߡ   󫻿᡿. 
        ݻ  ѽ Ҭ  ٬. ߡ ݻ߬ Ӽ  ߬ ٬. 
        ūԿ  .  ߬ Ҭ. Ҭ  Ҭ,  ߫ԡѡ. 
        ѡ   Ҭ []. ѡ   Կ  Կ ߫ߡ. Ҭ   : 
         ҡ  󫻿᡿. 
        櫫ԡѡ Ҭ -, -, -, -,  ᬪ -.
        Ҭ  ѡ ߡ ߽ ޿ڿ  . 
        󫻿᡿    ߽ ޿ڿ  ӡ  . 
        Ҭ    ߽   ӡ  ᡿.
        ūԿ  ᡿. ƿ ᡿  ߬ ٬. ᡿ Ҭ  ӡ ߽  -
        󫻿᡿. 
        ߬, ݻ߬ ߽ӿ  ߻.
        Կ߬  ߽. 
        . 
        潫ẫ᡿  Ҭ. 
        ūԿ  Ѽ. ӿ ߿ᵿ Ѽ. ɫ Ѽ  ߽ẫ᡿  ߽󫿺-
        ѡѡ. Ѽ   ӫ  ᡿ᵿ ߽: ӡ   Ѽ. ӿ, -
        . ߡ ߽.
        ҽ Ѽ, ӿ  ѽѡ. 
        ѡ 񡫬ѡ ߽  ẽټ ӿἿ  Ἷ. ߻᡿ ԿԿ-
        ߬ ѡ Ѽ.
        滫߫ ߽ẫ᡿: ѽѡ  ߿ᵿ.
         ߻߫ ߬ ߽ẫ᡿: ٮ, ӿٮ, ӿ-
        ٮ. 
        Ѻߡ ߻߫ ߽ẫ᡿: ߽ѡ, ߫ѡ, ի  񡫮 Կ   ү. 
        潫ẫ᡿ ѡѽ Ѯ .
        󫻿᡿ ߽  ߽߫ѡ ߽. 
         ӿ. 󫻿᡿ ӿ -  ӿ-   ߼߽ẽѽ ӫ. 
        Ҭ     ӿ. 
        潫ẫѽ  Ѽ ߽ӿ ߬ ٬. 
        潫ẫѽٮ  Ѽٮ  ߽. 
        . 
          Ҭ. ߡ Կ ߬ . Ѭ߿߬  ἼԿ߬ -
         ߽. ἼԿ߬ ѡ ߽,  Խѽ ӿᬿ. 櫫ԡѡ ߽  Ӽ ߽. 
        Կ   ߬ ٬. ӿӿ ᡿ѡ Ѯ . Ἣԫѽ  ߽Ҫ -
        Կ : ӿ  ӫԿ󫻫ѡ.
        꼴 ѽ. 꼴 ѽ   .
        ߡ Ӵ ѽ. ѽ ӿѽ  ߫ѡ. ѡ 
        ӫߡ Ҭ. ѡ  ѫѡ ѽ.  ѡ ѡԿ/ 
        ѫѡԿ. 
        ߬ ӿᬿ ѡ ѽ  Կ . 
        ɫ ѽ. 潫  ӫ,  Կ. 
         ӫ ߫ ߬ѡѼ.
        ߽  ߬ ӿ ѽ. ߡ ߻߫ ӫԿ󫻫ѡ -
        ѡ  ѡ ѽ. 
        Ѽ ѪѮ ѡ ѽ.  ӫԿ󫻫ѡ ѪѮ. 
        ƿ ߬ѡ ѽ. ạ߬Ѽ ѽ. 欽Ѽ  ߬Ѽ 
        ѽ. 
         Ѫ ᡿ ѽ. 
        󫻿᡿ ߫ ѽ.
        ߬  ѡ ѽ. 
        꼴 ӿѽ. 꼴 ӿѽ   . 
        ߬ ӿᬿ ӿѽ. 
        Ӵ ѡ ӿѽ (ѡ, ԡ߿ѽ  ӿԴѽ):  ӿԿ, 
        ի ߽.
        ū  Ԭ ӿѽ. ԿԿ߬ ߫ѡԿ һѡ Ԭ Ӽ. 
        ѻѡ ѡ ӿѽ: ἼԿ߬ ѡ, ߫ѡԿ ẫ᡿, һѡ 
        ӫ, ߫ Ӽ ѽ  ի񡫮 ѻѡѮ. 
        ƿ ߬ѡ ӿѽ. 欽Ѽ  ߬Ѽ ӿѽ. 
        󫻿᡿ ߫ ӿѽ. 
         Ѫ Ѭ߿ ӿѽ. 
            ӿѽ.
          ӿѽټ. 
        ߬  ѡ ӿѽ. 
        ԫѡ. ԫѡ   . 
                 Ӵ ԫѡ: , ԡ, Ҭѽ, ӿԴѽ, ӫ߿ѽ, ԡ߿-
        ѽ, ѽѽ, ѫѽѡ, ӿѽ. 
        ￵  ԫѡ. 
        ƿ ߬ѡ ԫѡ. 
        󫻿᡿ ѫѽѡ  ӿѽ ԫѡ. 
        󡫮 -  Ӽ  ԫѡ 3 . 
        ߫ѡԿ һѡ ԫѡ.
        ߬  ԫѡ. 
        꼴 ߽ѽ. 꼴 ߽ѽ   . 
                 Ӵ ߽ѽ  ѡ: ѡ, ߫ѽ, ӫ, Ӵ. 
        ƿ ߽ѽ  Ҭ: ӫ, ߽, ߫. 
        ߬ ӿᬿ: ߽, ӫ  Ѫ  ߽ѽ. 
        ƿ ߬ѡ ߽ѽ. 
         Ѫ ᡿ ߽ѽ. 
               ߽ѽ. 
        潿ԡ  ѽ ỿ᡿ ߽ѽ.
        Ӽ ߬ѡ ߽  ߫ ѡ ߽ѽ. ߫ѡԿ  һѡ 
        ߫ѽ ߽ѽ.  ߻᡿ ߽ѽ  ѡ   ӿѽ-
         .
        ߬  ѡ ߽ѽ. 
        .    . 
        ߡ ߬ ӿᬿ : , ի/ ѻի, Ѽ, ᬽѡ, 
        , ߽, ӫ. 
        Ѽ  Ӽ. ӴѼ  ߻ӴѼ Ӽ . ߽    . -
           Ѻ. Ӵѡ . ạ߻ӴѼ . 󫻿᡿  ᡿ 
        . 
         ի  ѻի. 
         : ߫ѡٮ, ߫ѡٮ. 
        Ѽ . ūѽ ӫ, ԫ,  ӫԫ,  ߫ 
        Ѽѡ. 
        ῼ   Ѽѡ . 
        ߡ Ҭ , ,     ӫ Ѽѡ. 
         ᬽѡ  ߬ ٬. ӫԿ󫻫ѡ Ӽ ѽѽ  ߽߫ѽ 
        (߽) ۴ѽ ᬽѡ. 
        ۴ѽ ᬽѡ: ἼԿ߬ ѡ, ߻߫  ѡ.
        ūѽѽ ᬽѡ: ἼԿ߬ ѡ, ߻ѵ ẫ᡿, ߻Ӵѡ. 
        ߽ѽ (߽) ᬽѡ: ἼԿ߬ ѡ, Ҭ, ߫ѡԿ ѡѡ. 
            Ӽ. 
          ߫. 
          Ἷ.
        ѡ ѽ  Ӽ  . 
        ߬  .
        ӿԿ. ӿԿ  ߫ Ӽ . 
        ӿᬿ   ӿѽ  ӿԿ.
        ӿԿ   ӿѽ: ӿӿ ᡿ѡ. 
        ẫ᡿ ӿԡ Ӽ  ߿Կ  իԿ/ ѻիԿ   .  
        ӿԡ Ӽ. 
        Ѯѽ ӿԿ ԫ  ӫ Ѽѡ, ѽ ӿԿ ԫ  
        ӫ Ѽѡ: ἼԿ߬ ѡ, ߡ, , ߬ѡ. 
        ū  Ԭ ӿԿ.
         ߫ Ѯѽ ӿԿ ԫ Ѽѡ  ѽ ӿԿ 
        ӫ Ѽѡ. 
              Ԭ Ӽ ӿԿ. 
          ӿԿ.
        ԿԿ߬ ѡ ӿԿ. 
        ߬  ӿԿ.
        ѻӿԿ. ѻӿԿ  ߫ Ӽ . 
        ӿᬿ     ѻӿԿ.  ѻӿԡ Ӽ.
        ѻӿԿ ߫ѡ  ߫ѡ : ἼԿ߬ ѡ, ߡ, . 
          ѻӿԿ.
        Ӽ һѡ ѻӿԿ. 
        ߬  ѻӿԿ.
        .    . 
        Ӵ :  Ѯ, , Ѽѡ, , ӿ, ߽, ߽, һ. -
        ԫѡ . 
        ẫ᡿, һѡ ѽ  ի񡫮 ѻѡѮ . 
           ټ ߡټ  ޿ڿ. 
        潿ԡ, ѽ  ߡ ỿ᡿ .
            . 
            . 
        ߬  .
        .   ߽Ҫ  .  ѻӫ (ạ)  ӫ 
        (ѻạ). 潿ԡ  ѽ ỿ᡿ ӫ .
        ߬  .
        櫯. 櫯  ߽Ҫ  . 
        ƿ ߫  ӫѡ. 
        ѽ  ѽ ߫   ạԿ.
        󫻿᡿ ߫. 
        櫯  ߫ ߽: ӿӿ  ᡿ѡ. 
        ߬  ߫.
        Կ. Կ  ߽Ҫ  . 
        Ӵ Կ: Ӽүڿ, ӿѽ, . 
        Կ     ẽټ Դ . 潿ԡ  ѽ ỿ᡿ Կ. 
        ߬  Կ.
        ѪԿ. ѪԿ   . Խ ѪԿ  Ἣԫѽ  ߽Ҫ Ѯ. 
        Ӵ ѪԿ  ҡ.  ѪԿ. ᬿ ѻ᡿  񽫪ѡ  
        ѪԿ.
        ߬  ѪԿ. 
        ԿԿ߬ Լѡ ѽ ߽Ҫ Ѯ . 
        . 
        濡߿  Ҭ. ߡ 񿡿 ߿߿: ߽߫᡿, ӫԫ 񽫪ѡ  ߽ 
        񽫪ѡ. 
        濡߿߬  Ѫ ѡἿ ߽߫᡿, ӫԫ 񽫪ѡ  ߽ -
        ѡ. ūѽ  ߫ѽ . 
        Ѭ  ѼԿ߬, ߼߽, Ҭӡ, Կ . ߡ Կ Ѭԫ 󴺿. 
        潫߫᡿. 潫߫᡿  񿡿 ߿߿.   ߿ ߽.  󴺿 
        ߽  ߽߫᡿: һѡ, ߫߫᡿, ӿ٬᡿. 
        ӫԫ 񽫪ѡ. 񽫪ѡ  񿡿 ߿߿. ūԿ  ӫԫ 񽫪ѡ. 
        ӿ ߿ᵿ ӫ 񽫪ѡ. ƿ 񽫪ѡ  ѽ ߬᡿  ݼ-
         ߬: ѽ, ѽ, ӫ߿ѽ 񽫪ѡ. ߬ѽ -
        ѡ.
          ԫӫѻѡ ѡ 񽫪ѡ: ӿ  ᡿ѡ. 
        ūԿ  ἼԿ߬ ߡ 񽫪ѡ.  ѡ 񽫪ѡ. ūѪ  ߬-
        : ߿ᵿ  ߻߫ ѡ. 
        ԫӫѻѡ ѡ 񽫪ѡ: ѽѡ, ӿѡ, 񫻫ѡ, ԫѽ (߿-
        ᵿ  ߻߫ ѡ). 
        ߫  ߫ 񽫪ѡ. ӿԿ ߫ 񽫪ѡ: ѽѡ-
        -, ѫѽѡ-, Ѻ,  񽫪ѡ.
        ߻ӫѡ  ߻ӫѡ 񽫪ѡ. 
        ū  ѻ 񽫪ѡ. 
        ߽ѡ 񽫪ѡ. ūԿ  ߽ѡ 񽫪ѡ. 
        ӫ ѡ 񽫪ѡ. ӫ  ѫӫ ѽѡ. 
        ӫ ѡ 񽫪ѡ  ڿ ߽Ἷ. 
        񽫪ѡ  ߫ѡټ ѡἿ 񽫪ѡ. 
        񽫪ѡ  ټ ߽Ἷ, ߽߫᡿  񽫪ѡ. 
        񽫪ѡ  ѡ. 
        潫 񽫪ѡ. ūԿ  ߽ 񽫪ѡ. 
        潫߫ѡ 񽫪ѡ: ѽѡ, ߿ᵿ. 
        潫ѡ 񽫪ѡ: ѽѡ, ߿ᵿ. 
        ߫ ߽ 񽫪ѡ: ѽѡ, ߿ᵿ. 
        Ӵ  ѡ . Ὣ. ӿѼ ѡ Ӵ   ѡү  ӫ. 
        Կӫ᡿   ӿѼ. 
        ҡᵿ. ūԿ  ҡᵿ.  ҡᵿ  ߿߿. 
        ᬿ ѻ᡿:  Կ  ҡ.
        ƿ Ѫ Ѫڿ  ߬Ѽټ.
        ᬿ ѻ᡿ ӿ ӿѡ.
        ƿ  ѻ 񽫪ѡ.
        ᬿ ѻ᡿ ӿ ӫ ѡ. ᬿ ѻ᡿ ӿ ӫ ѡ  ڿ 
        ߽Ἷ. 
        ҡᵿ ӿ ߫ѡ ѡ. 
        ᬿ ѻ᡿  񽫪ѡ  ټ ߽Ἷ, ߽߫᡿  񽫪ѡ. 
        ҡᵿ  񽫪ѡ  ѡ. 
        ᬿ ѻ᡿  ߽߫ѡ, ߽ѡ, ߫ ߽ 񽫪ѡ. 
        ҡᵿ  񽫪ѡ  Ӵ   ӿ Ὣ.
        Ӽѡ .
        ūԿ  ߿߿߬ Ѽ 񽫪ѡ. 濡߿߬  ߽ 񽫪ѡ  -
        ټ Ἷ 󴺿. 
             
                       ū ѫԿ߬ ᡿, һѽٮ ݬѡ  ߬ ٬ (ԡ) ӿ ٴ 
        Ҽѡ ӿѡԫ  ạ  ӫ: Կ߬, Ѽٮ ( ߫)  ߽-
        ѽٮ, ߬, ߿߿߬.
                    쿪   ẵ ӿѡ ߬ 񽫪ѡ. 
        ѻ޿, 󽴴 ӫѡ Ҭ  ᬿ ѻ᡿. ۴ߡ Ἴ  
        ҡᵿ. ūӫ ߿߿߬ү Ѽ 񽫪ѡ    ү ӿԿ, 󬽯-
          ӫԫ 񽫪ѡ. ӫ  ߽:  - Կ߬,  - Ѽٮ ( ߫-
        )  ߽ẫѽٮ,  - ߬. 
        (ū) ټ: ѽѡ:  ѻڿ  :Ѯ :ߴ ߬ټ  ߡټ 
        :: :ߡ (, )  :  ի ԫӪ(, )ٮ :ӫ : ԫ-
        Ӵ:ٮ Ἷ : ԫ ߽Ҫ  ()  (. Ӽԫ). 
        
                   ƫ  (ӿ, )߫񿡿 () Ѽ (, ) ڿ : Ҭ () :: 
        : (, ):Ѯ (, ):ᡫ  ԫ :ߴ :ٮ   :Ὣ Ѽ 
        ߽ ӫ ߫ԡ ::ᡫ  ::ӿ (, )Ӫ:ᴼ () :  :Ѯ :ٮ 
        : (. ǡ). 
        
                   ū߽  ٽ ᪡ Ҽ(, )  () ԫ ѡ Ҽ ٽ :߫(, )  Լ    
        () ѽ :Ὣ ԫ :һ :  ()  Ҫ:  ٽ (ټ)ߡ : :(ԫ) 񿬿 
         ߿: Ҽ (. ҡ
        
        
              
        
        
        
         ҡ XVI ӫἼ ѽ ԫ  
        ӿѡԫ, һڿ  ԫӿ߬ -
        ҽ.
        һѡ. ӫիѡ ߽. ԫ 
        ߽: Ѽѡ, ѡٮ ӫ, ᡴԿ. -
        ӿԿ ӿԫӿ ѽѡ ԫ ߽-
        . 
        I. 󡴴 
        1. 髺ѡ . ӿ᡿ Ӵ, 
         ѡ. 衴ѡ Ӵ, Ľ, ԫ߽.
        2. 衴ѡ . 񿼿. ѡ ߿. -
          ӿԿ. ѡ ӿԿ ӿԿ-
        .
        3. ߫ ߽ ߼Կ . 񿼿. .  
        ӿ  .
        4. ӫ߽ ٮ. ߬  (ӿԿ-
        ).
        
        5. ѫ ӫѡ (ӿԿ, ӿ-
        , ߡ ߫Կ).
         6. 񿼿 .
         7. ߬ ӫ   ().
         8. ҽ ߬ ߿.
        II. 󡴴   ӿ ӫ-߬ 
        
        1. ӿԿ  (ӫ, ᡴԿ, ѡ 
        ᡿ᵿ).
        2.   .
        3. . ǽѬ ߬   ӫԿ ߬ 
         Ѽѵ ߿.
        4.   ӫ-߬  (߬, -
        Ѻ Ѯ  , ӫ Ӭ).
        III. 髺ѡ ߬ 
        1. ӿ ѡ ߬.
        2. ߬߬ ,  Կ. ӿ ᡿ 
         ´ ߬. 濼ѫ ٮ.  ὿.
        3. ҽ߬ .
        IV. ẫ᡿ ߬ ѡ὿ᡡ 
          XV .
        1. "ѫ 󫮡"  2- Կ XV . ߿-
         Ѽٮ.
        2. ẫ᡿ ѡ὿ᡡ  ӿ 
         III. ӿ߫ѡ ӫ  ߬.
        3. ԫ  . ѡ ӫ-߬ 
        .
        4.  1497 . (ӿԿ).
        5. ߬ ҽ XIV-XV .
        V. ɫ߿  XVI ԫԿ
        1. ѡ ߿ III.
        2.  ӫٮ.
        3. Ӽ ᡡ . ԫ.
        4. ᡿ ᡿  ᡿.
        5. ߬ 󫮡. Ļӿ.
        6.  ѫ ᡡ  ӿ ҡ. -
        ߬ ѽ. Ӫѡ ӿ.
        VI. ԡ Ѽ
        1. Կ 1605-1610 . Ἣᡵ. ߿ Ү-
        ߬. . ԡ. ū߬-ԫ߬-߬ -
        ѡ.  ӫ- Ӵ.
        2. Ļѡ.   ū߬.  1613 .
        VII. ɫ߿  XVII .
        1. ߬-߬ ԡѡ  . XVII .  
         漫ѡ߬. ҽ߬ Ѽӿ. 
        2. ӫ߬ ᡿.
        3. ӡ ҽѡ ().
        4.   ҡѮ  ῡ. ߫ѡ -
          ɫ߿Ѯ.
        5. ӿ 쿬. Ӭٮ ߬. Ӭ 
            XVII . 
        6. 櫵-ݬ߬ ߫ԫ ɫ߿  XVII 
        . 񼿡ᵿ. ӿ, , Ӽ, ߫ 
        ѽѡ, ԫ, Ѽ߽, ѻԡ .
        7. ᡿ ѻ ế.
        8. ߬ ҽ XVI-XVII .
        VIII. ػ  I
        1.  . ѽѵ ҡ. ѽ -
        ߫  ẫ߬ ի.
        2. ޡ Կ  Կ XVIII .
        3. Ӽ  I.
        4. 櫵 - ݬ߬ Կ ɫ߿  -
          XVIII .
        5. ẫ᡿  Ҭ.
         IX. ػ ӵ ӫԫ
        1. ӫ 1725 . ӿ. ɫ .
        2. ᡿ ǡ ᡡ.
        3. ᡿ ཿ ӫ. ѡ  
        ޡ Կ. Ѽԡ 󫮡.
        4. ߬ ҽ . XVIII .
         X. ɫ߿  2- . XVIII .
        1. ѡ Ѵѽ. "". Ӽ.
        2. ᡿ . .
        3. ޡ Կ ɫ߿  ᡿ ӿ-
         II. 髮  ӵѮ, ӿ߫ѡ ټ, -
        ѽ ū޿.
        4. ѡ  ޡ Կ  I.
        XI. ɫ߿   Կ XIX .
        1. Ӽ  ᡿ ǽѬ I.
        2. ޡ Կ ɫ߿ 1805-1812.
        3. ѡ 󫮡 1812 .
        4. ѡ߬ . ѡٮ ߫.
        5. ѡ Կ ǽѬ I 1812 - 1825 .
        XII. ɫ߿  2- Կ - . XIX .
        1. ᡿ 14 ѬӴ 1825 .
        2. ѡ Կ 쿬 I.
        3. ޡ Կ 쿬 I.
        4. 櫵-ݬ߬ ߫ԫ ɫ߿  
        ټ߬ 󫮡.
        5. ټ߬ 󫮡.
        6. ߬ ҽ 1- . XIX .
        XIII. ɫ߿  ݻ Ӽ ǽѬ II
        1. ӿ Ӽ.
        2. Լѡ ѻԡ .
        3.  Ӽ.
        4. Ѽ߬  ӫ߬ Ӽ.
        5. ẫ᡿  .
        6. ѡ Ӽ.
        7. ߬-ѵ 󫮡 1877-1878.
        8.   󫽯 ѡ. -
         Ӵ.  ǽѬ II.
        XIV. ɫ߿  ӿ 1881-1895 .
        1. ѡ  ޡ Կ.
        2. 櫵-ݬ߬ ѡ ɫ߿.
        3. Կ ӫ޽ѡԿ   ѡ.
        4. ߬ Ҭ  ҽ 2- . XIX .
        XV. ɫ߿  . XIX - . XX .
        1. ޡ Կ. 
        2. ߬-߬ 󫮡.
        3. 󫽯 1905-1907 . ᡿ 17 ԴӴ. 
        Ҽ   ӫ. ūԿ߬ Կ.
        4. Ӽ . . ԫٻ.
        5.  ӫ 󫮡.
        6. ߬ 󫽯.
        7.  쿬 II.
        VI. ɫ߿  1917 . ĬԴ߬ ӫ
        1. Կ Կ߬ ߿ᵿ  ὴ  Ĭ-
        Դӯ.
        2. ѡ  ޡ Կ Ѽѡ -
        ѽ. ᡿ ѡ ӿ.
        3. ĬԴ߬ ӫ. Կ 25-26 ԴӴ.
        4. Ӽѡ Կ߬ Կ: II Ѻ -
        ԫ,  ѽ ߫᡿, 諡Կ-
         1918 .
        5. Ӭ-ѡ ԡѡ  1917-
        1918 .
        6. 櫵-ݬ߬ Կ. "ѡٮ 
        ҡ".
        7. ߬ .
        XVII. ߬ 󫮡
        1. ߬ 󫮡. ūԿ. ӿ.
        2. ӫԿүڿ ԫӫ.
        3. ӿ ߬ 󫮡.
        4.  ѡ Ѯ.
        5. ѡ.
        6. ū߽ 󫮡.
        XVIII. ߬ ɫ߿  20- .
        1. ӿ ի   ݬ߬ -
        Կ.
        2. ڡ  ի . ӫԿ ӿ-
        .
        3. ӿ ᡿ .
        4. ūԿ߬ ӫ  20- .
        5. 諡Կҵ 1924 .
        6. Ӭ  .
        7. ẫ᡿ .
        8. ޡ Կ  20- .
        XIX. ߬ 櫯  1930- .
        1. ūԿ "ޫ ߬  ߫὿".
        2. ӿ὿ᵿ  ѬԿᵿ.
        3. ԫ ݬ߬ Կ.
        4. ūԿ߬ ӫ.
        5. 諡Կҵ 1936 .
        6. 󫽯 ޡ .
        XX. ѽ ѡ 󫮡
        1.  ҡ 󫮡.
        2. ߡ  󫮡.
        3. ڿ ի  Ѯ.
        4. ῼԡѡ  ߫Ἷ.
        5. ߬ ٽ.
        6. ԫ 󫮡.
        XXI.  ߽ѡ ߴԿԿ
        1. ج.
        2. ѡ-Կ߬ .
        3. "򫽫 󫮡".
        XXII. ߬ "ѻѽ"
        1. 򫺴ѡ Ӽ.
        2. XX Ѻ   "ѻѽ".
        3. ӫἼ ӫѽ ҡ.
        4. Ӭ-ѡ ԡѡ.
        5. ޡ Կ.
        XXIII. ӿ "ԫ"
        1. ūԿ ӿ "ԫ".
        2. 򫺴ѡ Ӽ 1965.
        3. ӫ޽ѡ  ѽ߬ ի.
        4. ج߬ ԫ "Ѫ߬" ӿ.
        5. ѫ ݻտ "ԫ ߫὿".
        6. 諡Կҵ 1977 .
        7. ޡ Կ.
                 XXIV. ӫ  ѡ ߫߬ 
                 ߿Ѽ
        1. ūԿ ӫ.
        2. ūԬ ݬ߬ Ӽӫ᡿.
        3.   ߫᡿ ҽӡ ١ ݬ-
        .
        4. ūԬ Կ߬ Ӽӫ᡿.
        5.  XIX Ԭѡ  ԫ߬ .
        6. " Կ߬ ޽ѡ".
        7. ᡿ ѡ ӿ.
        8. ߻ .
        
        :
        1. ԫӿ ɫ߿  Ѯ޿ Ѽѡ  1861  / ū . . . ѡ. ., 1998.
        2. ԫӿ ɫ߿. 1861-1917 . / ū . . . ӫ. ., 1999.
        3. Žԫ . . Ѭ  ߬ ԫӿ. ., 1993; ., 1997.
        4. ެ . . Ѭ  ߬ ԫӿ. ., 1993; ., 2000.
        5. ᡿ . ., ҽ . . ԫӿ ɫ߿. XX Ѭ.   9  ѫẫѽ 
        ެ. ., 1999.
        6. ӽ . ., ѫ . .  . ߡ  ԫӿ ɫ߿. ., 2000.
        7. ٻ ., ӫ. ԫӿ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ. 1917-1990. ., 1994. 
        ɴ    
          
        佴 һڿ  ߬ ҽ, Ѫҽ߬ ѽѡ ߿߬    
        ѽѡ ӿԿ߬ ѡԿ ӿ ߽߬ ҽ 
        1.һѽ ߻᡿  ᡡ ٬  ѽѡ "ɫᡫ - Ӽ߬ " 
        ӫߴ  Ӽ ѡ Ѭ߿ - ἼԿ߬   ԡ ߻᡿.
        2. һѽ ߻᡿  ᡡ ٬  ѽѡ "߿߬ ", "ԫ - 
        ӿԿ߬ "  "ӿԿ߬ ѡ" ӫߴ  Ӽ ԡ ߻᡿.
        3.  ٻѡ ѡ  ӿѡ ߴ 40 .
        4. ի  ԫӿ,  ԫӫ ӫߴ ߻᡿,  ߴ.
        5. ԡ ߻᡿ ӫߴ  , Ѽ ӿѡԫ.
        6.  ԫ   ӿѡ ߴ 45 
        7. ūԫ   ӫߴ  ԫӿ,  ӫߴ ߻᡿.
        8. ӿѡ ߴ ѽ ᬬ -  Ԭ  - , ӫ ᡡ ᡬ ԡ .
        9.  񽫪ѡ ݬѡᵿ   ᡡ   ᡡٮ ٬ ӿѡ 
          ѡ. 
        10  ߬ Ѭ ӿѡ ӫ ԡ.
        11. Ѽ  ԫ    񫻫ѽ ӫ  ߴ.
        12.  ѡ ԡ  ӿ ߴ  ߡ ԫ    ӫ߫ (᡿) 
          񫻫ѽ ӫ߫. ӿ ӿѽ ѡ   ԫ  ӿ Ԭ 
        ӿѡ     ߻᡿ ߴ  ߴ  ѡ "ӿѽ".
        13. جѡԫ    ߽޿  ӿѡ  . 
             
        ( һڿ  ߬ ҽ, Ѫҽ߬ ѽѡ ߿߬ 
          ѽѡ ӿԿ߬ ѡԿ ӿ ߽߬ ҽ) 
        
        
        1. Ҭ ӫ ߬ ٬. ūԿ 
         Կ߬ ߬ӿ. 䫽  Ԭ ߫-
        ߡ. ԫ.
        2. ūԿ  ߽ߡ ѡ. ƿ ߽ߡ 
        ѡ:   ԫӫѻѡ. Ѻӡٮ ߽ 
         ߬ ٬. ūԿ  ẫ ѡ. 
        潫,  իڿߴ  ѡѼ  : 
        ѽ, ӿѽ,  
        , ߽ѽ, , Ҭѽ, -
        ӫ߿ѽ ԫѡ  .. 潫,  ѯڿ 
        ѡ  : , ߫, Կ, -
        , ӿԴѽ, ԡ   ԫ-
        ѡ, ߻ѽ   ..
        3. ūԿ  ԫᵿ ߬ ٬   
        ҡ. իڿ ԫ   һѡ  
        ѡ ѺѡԿ ߬᡿   -
        ڿ ӫ. ի ެ  ߡ ѽ-
        񿬿 ߬ .  ԫᵿ 
        Ӽѡ ߡ Կ 񽫪ѡ: -
        ѽ,  Կ ӫ߫  ..
        
        1. Կ.  Կ  һѡ Կ.
        2. 꼴 ѽ. ẫ᡿ ѡ-
         ߽. Ӽ ӿԴѽ Ѫ. ᡿ 
        ѽ  Ἷ, ڿ Ѭ-
        ԫ ѡ ѪѮ ߬ ٬.
        3. 꼴 ӿѽ. ẫ᡿ ѻѡѮ -
        ѡ (ڿ   ߫ ߽).
        4. .  Ӽ . ѡ 
         to have, to be, to do; should, would  -
        ԫѽ  ߻ѽ . -
        ѡ  to be  -󴺬. 
        
        
        ѡ  be  have   -
        ѡ. ߻ѽ  shall, will. -
          can, may, must.
        5. Ѽ  Ѽѡ  һ Simple (In-
        definite), Continuous, Perfect, Active Voice. The Present 
        Perfect Continuous Tense.
        6. ẫ᡿ Passive Voice. ѡ  
         Present, Past, Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense Passive 
        Voice; Present, Past Continuous Tense Passive Voice; 
        Present, Past Perfect Tense Passive Voice.
        7. ѡ  to be, to become, to get, to 
        turn, to grow  -󴺫.
        8. ߽ѽ ᬽѡ (Subjunctive mood). 
        ūѽѽ ᬽѡ.
        9. .  һѽ . -
        ѡ ѡ .
        10. .  һѽ .
        11. 櫯.  һѽ ߫ѽ 
         ѽ ߫. ļ ߫ for, 
        once, since.
        12. 潫ẫ᡿. ߡ ߻߫ ߽-
        ᡿ ѽ, ӿѽ, , 
        . ᪡Ѯ޿   .
        
        1. ӫԫ 񽫪ѡ. ߻ӫѡ 
         ߻ӫѡ 񽫪ѡ.
        2.  ѡ 񽫪ѡ. 滫߫ ѡ 
        Ѫ.  ߬Ѽ (ӫԫ , 
        ߫   ѡ). ԫӫѻѡ 
        ѡ 񽫪ѡ. ūӴ ߽  ѽ, 
        ӫ߿ѽ  ӿѽ 񽫪ѡ.
        3. 潫߫ѡ  ߽ѡ -
        ѡ.  һѽ  ӿԫ 
        񽫪ѡ.
        
        
        ԡ һѽ ߻᡿  ߬ ٬ ߫ԫ  ѡ,   ߬ -
        Կӫᡡ Ѭ (  ߫Ѽѡ ӿ񿬿  ԫӿ - ҽӡ Ѽ    -
        ѡ ), ἼԿ߬ ὿ Ӭ  Ѭ Ӽ,   Ѭ   -
        ү, 񽫪ѡү ݬѡԫӫ Ѽ,  ᬪ ѡ    ߬ ٬  ߬. 
        ӿѡ 񫽪ѡ  ү ߬ү , Ҽ   ӫ, Կ   ݬѡ-
        ԫӫ  ߬ ٬.
        ѡ 񫽪  Կ߬ ټ.
        ӿԿ ἼԿ߬ Ӽ Կѽ   ߬ ٬.  ԫ ߽, ߽ 
        ӿѡ  ἼԿ߬ ὿  - ߬, ѽټ ߴ ᡿ Ӽ (-
         Ѯ ,  Ѽѡ  ᬽѡ, ӿ , ӫ  ߽)  - ߬.
        ū ߡ󡫮 ӫἼ  ἼԿ ߬ ٬, ӿѡ 񫽪ѡ Ҽ ӫ 
        ߿߿߬  񽫪ѡ ( ߬ߴ -  ߬ ٬).
          ӿ ѡ  ߴ   ޿.
        ӿӡٮ   ߬ ٬ (2004)
        
        1. Your report must_______as soon as possible.
        a) being finished  b) have finished  c) be finished  d) having been finished
        2. There_____no trains to Glasgow for three days.
        a) are  b) has been  c) have been  d) had been
        3. Your Dad has a beard. How long _____he_____it?
        a) has:had   b) did:have  c) does:have  d) have:had
        4. The police_______for the missing boy.
        a) looks  b) is looking  c) are looking
        5. Barbara said that her grandmother_______her Shakespeare's complete works as a birthday present.
        a) give  b) will give  c) would give  d) would be given
        6. I would love to go to the theatre with you tomorrow, but I______to work.
        a) should  b) must  c) could  d) have
        7. The house was quiet when I got home. Everyone_______to bed.
        a) has gone  b) had been gone  c) went  d) had gone
        8. You should_______to her for what you did.
        a) excuse  b) apologise  c) sorry  d) forgive
        9. We_______a party next Thursday. Would you like to come?
        a) are having  b) have  c) would have
        10. He is walking too fast. I can't_______him.
        a) keep up with  b) keep along with  c) keep on with  d) keep to
        11. Anthony congratulated me_____passing the driving test.
        a) at  b) on  c) with  d) for
        12. Mr.Green can't use his office at the moment. It_______redecorated.
        a) is  b) was  c) is being  d) has been 
        13. She wants__________to her immediately.
        a) that I will come  b) me coming c) I would come  d) me to come
        14. You_____better lock all the windows and the front door before we leave.
        a) had  b) would  c) should  d) ought  e) could
        15. _______my favourite subject at college.
        a) Physics were  b) Physics was  c) Physic was  d) The physics were  e) The Physics was
        16. _____North Sea joins_____British Isles and_____Norway.
        a) the:the:the  b) the...___:___  c) the:the:___  d) ___:the:___
        17. If he had been here yesterday, he________us readily.
        a) would help  b) had helped  c) helped  d) would have helped
        18. I_________sweets very much when I was a kid.
        a) used to liking  b) am used to liking  c) used to like  d) was used to like
        19. Harry's car is_______than mine.
        a) much more cheaper  b) much cheaper  c) much more cheap
        20. Kathy is different_______her twin sister.
        a) with  b) of  c) from  d) for
        21. There_______one in the yard last night.
        a) were not   b) were no  c) was not   d) was no
        22. Hurry up,_______we'll miss the train.
        a) because  b) otherwise  c) unless  d) that's why  e) so
        23. We were surprised_____her reaction to the news.
        a) for  b) with  c) at  d) of
        24. Mr. Brown is quite old, but he is_______working.
        a) still  b) yet  c) already  d) so far
        25. He went out in the rain without a coat. It was silly_____him.
        a) from  b) to  c) of  d) with  e) about
        26. He mother looks young. Does she always look so_______?
        a) well  b) good  c) goodly
        
        Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
        
        1. ᬿ ѽ Կ!    Һ?
        2.    ߽,     Ѯ.
        3.   쿬  ߬ ٬?
        4. ߽  ƫ ٽ  Ἷ ,    .
        
        ADVANTAGES OF CHEESE AS A TRAVELLING COMPANION
        After Jerome K. Jerome
        I remember a friend of mine buying a couple of cheeses at Liverpool. Wonderful cheeses they were, ripe and a 
        two-hundred-horse-power scent about them that might knock a man over at two hundred yards. I was in Liverpool at 
        the time, and my friend asked me to take the cheeses back with me to London. "Oh, with pleasure, dear boy," I said, 
        "with pleasure." I called for the cheeses and took them away in a cab.
        	I took my tickets and marched proudly up the platform, with my cheeses, the people falling back on both 
        sides. The train was crowded and I had to get into a carriage where there were already seven other people. A few mo-
        ments passed, and then the old gentleman who was sitting next to me began to sniff, saying "Quite oppressive." Then 
        he rose up without another word and went out. And then a stout lady got up, took up a bag and eight parcels and left 
        the carriage. The other passengers sat for a while, until a gentleman in the corner said it put him in mind of a dead 
        body; and the other passengers tried to get out of the door at the same time.
        	From Crews I had the compartment all to myself, though the train was crowded. I got off at Easton, took the 
        cheeses down to my friend's house.
        	My friend stayed in Liverpool longer than he had planned, and three days later his wife called on me. She 
        said, "What did Tom say about those cheeses?" "You think he would be upset if I gave a man a sovereign to take them 
        away and bury them?" she asked. I answered that I thought he would never smile again. "Very well then," said my 
        friend's wife rising, "all I have to say is that I shall take the children and go to a hotel until those cheeses are 
        eaten. I don't want to live any longer in the same house with them."
        	She kept her word. The hotel bill came to fifteen guineas; and my friend found that the cheeses had cost him 
        eight-and-sixpence a pound. He said he dearly loved a bit of cheese, but it was beyond his means; so he decided to get 
        rid of them. He threw them into the canal; but had to fish them out again, as the bargemen complained. They said it 
        made them feel quite faint.
        	My friend got rid of them, at last, by taking them down to a seaside town, and burying them on the beach. It 
        gained the place quite a reputation. Visitors said they had never noticed before how strong the air was, and sick 
        people went there for many years afterwards.
        
        ӿӡٮ   ᡵҺ߬ ٬
        
        1.Regardez ces photos sur ::..  on voit la famille en vacances
        a) qui  b) lesquelles  c) lesquels  d) dont
        2. Le passager :::.  on ne pouvait supporter les commentaries est finalement descendu.
        a) dont  b) de qui
        3. Louis Pasteur eut :.. succes dans son travail sur la vaccination.
        	a) du   b) le   c) un
        4. Il est entre alors que :::en train de prendre mon petit dejeuner
        	a) j'etais	b) j'ai ete    c) je fus
        5. Cette soupe n'est pas bonne, mais je vais la manger ::..
        	a) quand meme     b) en revanche      c) a tout prendre.
        6. C'est une histoire ::. l'imagination.
        	a) frappant      b) frappante
        7. Ne parlez pas avant qu'on vous  le ::.
        	a) permet    b) permette  c) permettra
        8. ::.. pouvoir reparer l'appareil, lisez le mode d'emploi.
        	a) Afin de    b)Afin que    c)Afin pour
        9. Acheter un album :: colorier pour Marie.
        	a) a     b) de
        10. ::..depechee, elle  a retrouve ses amis au cafe.
        	a)Apres avoir    b)Apres s'etre
        11. Cela nous ennuie :::::
        	a) de rater le bus    b) que nous rations le bus.
        12. Ils etaient ::.. contents de leurs resultants.
        	a) toutes   b) tous   c) touts
        13. ::. Des etudiantes etait venue saluer le professeur.
        	a) Chaque    b) Chacune c) Chacunes
        14. Je ne vais :::., je reste ici.
        	a) quelque part      b) nulle part
        15.:::d'autres invites pour la fete.
        	a) Il arrive    b)Il arrivent
        16. ::..je crains, c'est un soleil trop fort.
        	a) Ce que    b) Ce qui
        17. C'est vous qui ::.. ce bruit?
        	a) faites   b) font
        18. Ces conseils, tu dois :.. souvenir.
        	a) les     b) t'en   c) te les   d) en
        19. Cette actrice, je l'ai :::   au cinema.
        	a) vu     b) vue    c) vus
        20. Le pere Noel, c'est :::.apporte des jouets pour les enfants.
        	a) ce qui    b) celui qui   c) qui
        ԡ һѽ ߻᡿  ᡵҺ߬ ٬ ߫ԫ  ѡ,   ߬ -
        Կӫᡡ Ѭ (  ߫Ѽѡ ӿ񿬿  ԫӿ-ҽӡ Ѽ    -
        ѡ ),  ἼԿ߬ ὿ Ӭ  Ѭ Ӽ,   Ѭ   -
        ү, 񽫪ѡү ݬѡԫӫ Ѽ,  ᬪ  3   ߬ ٬  ᡵҺ߬. 
        ӿѡ 񫽪ѡ  ү ᡵҺ߬ү , Ҽ   ӫ, Կ   ݬ-
        ԫӫ  ᡵҺ߬ ٬.
        ѡ 񫽪  Կ߬ ټ. 
        ӿԿ ἼԿ߬ Ӽ Կѽ   ᡵҺ߬ ٬.  ԫ ߽, ߽ 
        ӿѡ  ἼԿ߬ ὿ -߬, ѽټ ߴ ᡿ Ӽ (᡿ 
        Ѯ ,  Ѽѡ  ᬽѡ, ӿ , ӫ  ߽) -ᡵҺ߬. 
        ӿѡ 񫽪ѡ  ἼԿ ᡵҺ߬ ٬  ѽ   ἼԿ ᡵҺ߬ 
        ٬ (Կ߬ ) / ..ū, ..ᬫ. (Cours pratique de  grammaire francaise )-  -
        ᡿.
        ū ߡ󡫮 ӫἼ  ἼԿ ᡵҺ߬ ٬, ӿѡ 񫽪ѡ  ߡ ߿-
        ߿ (ѡ 񽫪ѡ, ߫ѽү  ѽү   񽫪ѡ   ạԿ)  Ҽ 
        ӫ ߿߿߬  񽫪ѡ (߬ߴ -  ߬  ٬.)
        ӿ ѡ  ߴ   ޿.
        ѵ ԡ ᡿ 
        ( ѽѡ ɫᡫ - Ӽ߬ )
         
        (M.Pagnol, La gloire de mon pere)
             Un beau matin, ma mere me deposa a ma place, et sortit sans mot dire, pendant que mon pere ecrivait 
        magnifiquement sur le tableau: "La maman a puni son petit garcon qui n'etait pas sage".
        Tandis qu'il arrondissait un admirable point final, je criait: "Non! Ce n'est pas vrai!"
        Mon pere se retourna soudain, me regarda stupefait, et s'ecria: "Qu'est-ce que tu dis?"
         - Maman ne m'a pas puni! Tu n'as pas bien ecrit!
         Il s'avanca vers moi:
         - Qui t'a dit  qu'on t'avait puni? (1)
        - C'est ecrit.
        La surprise lui (2) coupa la parole un moment.
        - Voyons, voyons, dit-il enfin, est-ce que tu sais lire?
        - Oui.
        - Voyons, voyons... repetait-il. Il dirigea la pointe du (3) bambou vers le tableau noir.
        - Eh bien, lis.
        Je lus la phrase a haute voix. Alors, il alla prendre un abecedaire, et je lus (4) sans difficulte plusieurs pages...
        Je crois qu'il eut ce jour-la la plus grande joie, la plus grande fierte de sa vie.
        Lorsque ma mere survint, elle me trouva au milieu des quatre instituteurs, qui avaient renvoye leurs (5)eleves dans 
        la cour de recreation, et qui m'entendaient dechiffrer lentement l'histoire du Petit Poucet... Mais au lieu d'admirer 
        cet exploit, elle palit, deposa ses paquets par terre, referma le livre, et m'emporta dans ses bras, en disant : 
        "Mon Dieu! mon Dieu!... "
        Sur la porte de la classe, il y avait la concierge, qui etait une vieille femme corse : elle faisait des signes de 
        croix. J'ai su plus tard que c'etait elle qui etait allee chercher ma mere, en l'assurant que  "ces messieurs " allaient 
        me faire " eclater le cerveau ".
        A table, mon pere affirma qu'il s'agissait de superstitions ridicules, que je n'avais fourni aucun effort, que j'avais 
        appris a lire comme un perroquet apprend a parler, et qu'il ne s'en etait meme apercu. Ma mere ne fut pas convaincue, 
        et de temps a autre elle posait sa main fraiche sur mon front et me demandait : "Tu n'as pas mal a la
        tete?"
        
        (1)  avait puni - c'est le plus que parfait de l'indicatif du verbe "punir". Il s'emploie pour la concordance des temps 
        et exprime une action anterieure a une autre action au passe.
        (2)  lui - c'est le compliment d'objet indirect exprime par un pronom personnel atone.
        (3)  du - c'est l'article contracte.
        (4)  lus - c'est la premiere personne du singulier du verbe "lire" au passe simple de l'indicatif. (ӿѡ -
        ѡ Ҽ ӫ߻Ӵ    Ѽѡ  ᬽѡ).
        (5)  leurs - c'est l'adjectif possessif au pluriel.
        ѵ ԡ ᡿
        ( ѽѡ ߿߬, ԫ - ӿԿ߬ ,  ᬪ ѽѡ  ӿԿ-
        ߬ ѡԿ.)
        LA BEAUCE
        "Pourquoi eecrire cet article sur la Beauce? Tant pis! Puisque j'ai decide de le rediger, il faut je trouve quelque 
        chose a dire: Mais isi, tout est tellement plat! Pas la moindre colline, pas le moindre bois, rien que des champs a 
        perte de vue. Et les villages? Ils sont fort loin les uns des autres; dix ou quinze kilometers les separent. L'eau 
        etant rare dans le sous-sol, ils se sont groupes autour des puits et les amateurs de coins curieux seront bien decus 
        en les visitant, car il n'y a rien que de grosses fermes, avec leurs machines agricoles et leurs ecuries.
        Cependant, je comprends bien pourquoi les Francais sont si fiers de leur Beause: a cause du ble. Ces grands 
        mangeurs du pain parlent de la Beauce avec admiration parce qu'elle est le grenier de la France; sans le ble de cette 
        province, que mangeraient-ils? Et puis, il n'y a pas tant de vastes plaines en France! On est habitue a voir, a chaque 
        detour de la route, des paysages varies, des collines boisees, des vallees riantes; voila pourquoi  les Francais sont 
        euxmeme un peu surpris de trouver cette immense etenque, ou les bles ondulent jusqu'a I'horizon."   
        
          
        1.  ġ ߬ , ԫ  ӿ  (Il m'a dit que tu etais arrive hier).
        2.  һ Ἴ  (Ahete un kilo de pommes).
        3.     ѽ? (L'as-tu montre au professeur?)
        
              ӿӡ Ѽ  
        1.  Ѽ.
        2.  ᡴԿ.
        3. ūѼ  һ  ԫ-ƿի߬ ߿?
        4.  ԫ     ᡵ?
        5.  ӫ.
          
          
        
                  欽ѡ  һѡ ѡ ѽ  ẽ Ѫ.
        Կ. ѡ ѽѡ Կ. ѡ ѫѽѡ Կ. ѡ 
        ҽ Կ.
        . ǬԿ  ߿ Ӽ. ẫ᡿  һѡ Ѽѡ Ӽ ߿  ߽ 
          Prasens, Futurum, Perfekt, Plusquamperfekt, Prateritum.
        꼴 ӿѽ. ѡ Ԭ Ӽ ӿѽ. ẫ᡿  һѡ -
        ѡѮ ѡ ӿѽ  ẽ Ѫ.
        . ѡ   ẽ ѻѡ ѡ.
        ԫѡ. 欽ѡ  һѡ , Ҭѽ, ӿԴѽ ԫѡ,  -
         ӫ߿ѽ ԫѡ wer  was.
        . ѡ   󫮡ټ һѡѼ; , үڿ ѽ -
        : aus, bei, nach, mit, von, zu;   ӫѽټ Ѫ wahrend;   󿡿ѽټ Ѫ 
        fur, durch, ohne, um, gegen.
        
                       ѡ ѽ 񽫪ѡ, ӿѽ 񽫪ѡ  nicht  kein, ѽѽ-
         (ѽ), ӫ߿ѽ 񽫪ѡ  ӫ߿ѽټ ߽Ἷ  Ѻ . ѡ 
        񽫪ѡ  Ӵټ  ԡټ Ӵ񬫼 ߽. ѡ 񽫪ѡ ߫ ߬Ѽټ, ѡټ 
        󴺬  ѡѼ ѽټ  ӿѽټ  Ԭ Ӽ (߫ ѡ ߬Ѽ),  
        ӫټ ټ ߬Ѽټ  ӫټ ߬Ѽټ, ѡټ Ἷ  ѽѼ ӿ󬫮  ӫ-
          ߽ Ѽѡ Ӽ (Perfekt, Plusquamperfekt, Futurum I). 
        	ѡ 񽫪ѡ  ߫ټ ټ ߬Ѽټ, ѡټ ټ   
        Կ,   Կ  zu.
        	潫߫ѡ  ߽ѡ 񽫪ѡ.  һѽ  ӿԫ 
        񽫪ѡ.
        
        ԡ һѽ ߻᡿  Ѽѵ ٬ ߫ԫ  ѡ,   ߬ Կ-
        ӫᡡ Ѭ (  ߫Ѽѡ ӿ񿬿  ԫӿ - ҽӡ Ѽ    -
        ѡ ), ἼԿ߬ ὿ Ӭ  Ѭ Ӽ,   Ѭ   -
        ү, 񽫪ѡү ݬѡԫӫ Ѽ,  ᬪ  3   ߬ ٬  Ѽѵ. ӿѡ 
        񫽪ѡ  ү Ѽѵү , Ҽ   ӫ, Կ   ݬѡԫӫ  -
        ѵ ٬.
        ѡ 񫽪  Կ߬ ټ.
        ӿԿ ἼԿ߬ Ӽ Կѽ   Ѽѵ ٬.  ԫ ߽, ߽ -
        ӿѡ  ἼԿ߬ ὿  - ߬, ѽټ ߴ ᡿ Ӽ (᡿ 
        Ѯ ,  Ѽѡ  ᬽѡ, ӿ , ӫ  ߽)  -Ѽѵ.
        ӿ ѡ ߴ   ޿.
        
        
          
        1.ѡ   Ѭ.
        2. ߬ Ѭ. Ѭ ߬ߴ  Ѽ ,  ѡ ,  ԫѼ Ѽѡ   
        Ѽѡ, һѼ  Ѭ. Ѭ߿ - ἼԿ߬ ὿: ѽѡ ἼԿ߬ Ӽ 
        ѽ ߽  Ѭ,  ᬪ  񽫪ѡ  ѡ 񽫪ѡ.
        3.  񽫪ѡ  ߬ ٬  Ѽѵ.
        
        
        Eine Legende vom heiligen Nikolaus
        	Eines Tages horte der heilige Nikolaus von der Not eines armen Mannes. Der Mann war krank und konnte 
        nicht arbeiten. Da seine Frau schon vor Jahren gestorben war, herrschte grosse Not im Haus. Er hatte weder Brot noch 
        Kleidung fur seine Kinder und wusste nicht, wie er Hunger und Kalte vertreiben sollte. Die Kinder mussten von Tag 
        zu Tag argeren Hunger leiden. Ihr Vater war verzweifelt. Aber ihm wurde wunderbarer Weise geholfen.
        	Als der Arme eines Morgens aufwachte, traute er seinen Augen nicht. Vor dem Fenster stand ein grosser 
        Sack. Gefullt bis an den Rand mit Getreide. Irgendjemand musste ihn in der Nacht durch das Fenster in die Stube 
        gestellt haben. Die Freude war gross, denn nun hatte der Hunger ein Ende. Die Kinder mahlten zwischen zwei Steinen 
        das Getreide und bucken viele, viele Brote, so dass sie auch den Nachbarn abgeben konnten.
        	Aber das war nur die erste Wohltat gewesen. Am nachsten Morgen stand wieder ein Sack in der Stube. Dies-
        mal finden der Vater und seine Kinder darin viele Kleidungsstucke. Zwei Hosen und Hemden fur die Jungen, ein 
        warmes Kleid fur das Madchen. Nun war das Gluck noch grosser. 
        	Der Vater und die Kinder, sprachen sich ab, nachts zu wachen. Falls ihr Wohltater noch einmal kommen 
        sollte, wollten sie ihm danken. Als es Abend wurde, blieben sie am Tisch sitzen. Stunde fur Stunde verging, und 
        einem Kind nach den andern fielen die Augenlieder zu. Der Kopf wurde schwer und schwer und sank auf die 
        Tischplatte. Nur der Vater blieb noch wach, aber auch er wurde dann mude. Da horte er ein Gerausch. Als er schlaf-
        trunken aufblickte, sah er wieder einen Sack vor dem Fenster stehen. Er rannte auf die Strasse und erblickte dort eine 
        dunkle Gestalt. Er lief auf sie zu und erkannte den heiligen Nikolaus. Der arme Mann fiel auf die Knie und dankte 
        dem heiligen Nikolaus von ganzem Herzen. Der Heilige wehrte allen Dank ab und verschwand schnell um die nachste 
        Ecke.
        
        ẵ 񽫪ѡ    ߬ ٬:
         1.  ߫ѡ,    Ѯ ҮԿ, ԫ ԫ  ԡ    񫽪 󫡿  
        .
         2.   ӡҽ   ߿,     ٽ ԫ Ѽѡ, ԫ ԫߴ  
        ᡴԿ.
              3. ߽   ὿, ԫ   ỿ ޿ ӫ߫ӫ,   񿽿   Ѽ.
        4.   ӿ߽  ӡ, ԫٮ  Ҫ .
        
          
        1. Warum    ...    ihr uns so fruh?
        a)  verlassen
        b)  verlasst
        c)  verlasst
        2. ....    ihm die Temperatur!
        a)  messen
        b)  miss
        c)  mess
        3. Der Himmel ...  sich im Wasser ....
        a)  spiegelt... wieder
        b)  wiederspiegeln
        c)  wiederspiegelt
        4. Wovor furchtest du ... ?
        a)  dich
        b)  sich
        c)  dir
        5. Ich ....  heute um 7 Uhr aufgestanden.
        a)  habe
        b)  werde
        c)  bin
        6. Interessieren Sie sich  .... Poesie?
        a)  von
        b)  uber
        c)  fur
        d)  an
        7. Im Teich am Waldrand ...... zwei Schwane und Enten.
        a)  schwammen
        b)  schwimmt
        c)  schwommen
        8. Hier.... nicht laut .... 
        a)  wurden... gesprochen
        b)  werden... sprechen
        c)  wird... gesprochen
        9. Das ist Frau Schmidt mit ...   Sohn.
        a)  seinem
        b)  ihrem
        c)  seiner
        10. Gehen wir morgen .... ins Theater!
        a)  besser
        b)  lieber
        c)  am besten
            
        (ҽ Ӭ ѡ)
         
        ƣ "" (ѽѡ ) 
        һѽ ߻᡿:
        * ѵ (ӿӫ᡿  ߫᡿  ԫӿ Һ٬, 
        󬽯 Ӭ-߬ ߬) 
        * 櫽񪿫 (ѡ, ԡ)
        * ѻᡫ
        * ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ)
        * ߬ ٬ (ѡ)
        ᡿  ߻᡿  ߻ѵԿ
        ߻᡿  ߻ѵԿ ߫ԫ  ߽үڿ ѽ:
        1. ӿ߬    ԫѡ իӫ Կ,   ԫ    ߫ӫ-
        ѡѼ.
        2.   ѻᡫ Կ Կ  ѡ ߫ (Ὼ).
        3. ᡿  Ѽ ѡ Կ (ѡ     ԫ,  Ӭ-
         ߻  . .).
                         ӿӡ ӫἼ:
        ӿ 1.
                - ӫ , ߬ ߻,  Ӽ. . ԫ߬;
                - ߬ ӫ ߡ  Ԭ  "  ѡ ".
        ӿ 2.
        	- ԡ߬ . ѽ߬ ;
        	- ὿ . "ӫ".
        	 Ѭѡߴ   ݬѡ ߬ү ߡ  ߡѡ ӿԿ߬ ᡫ.
        4.     髺 ߻ѡ 񡫮  ӿԫѡ Կ   ߿.
        ᡿  ߻᡿  ߫񪿫
        佴  ѽѡ
              ūһڿ 񫽪ѡ:
        * ỿ ߡٮ  ӫԴѡ 8 - 12 ԫ, ߫Ӫڿ Ԭѡ  ӫ-
        ѡ ԫԿ, ӿӫᡡ һѡ, ԫᵿ  ӿԼ߬ Կ (߬, ߿  . 
        .);
        Ѽ ٻѡ - 30 . ӿӡ  - . տ "1000 ӿӫ Һ٬ -
        " N 406.
        *  ԫԴ  Ѽ ᬫ 󬽯ѽ , ѽ  ߽  :
        - һѡ ;
        -   ѽ  ( . . ӿԫ, ӡ );
        - Ѻ  һѡѮ ( . . I, IV,  V  ѡ), 񫼿ѻᬬ  ѡ, 
        ѻᬬ II  VII һѡѮ  ߡ󡫼  ( ᪫ -   Ӽ߬ ạ-
        Կ); 
        *  Ҭ ( ԫԿ):
        -    󡿺   ѽ , ẽ  Ѻ   ѡ. -
         ѻᬬ (ٮ ᪫ӡٮ  ѡ), Ҽѡѡٮ ѻᬬ;
        - ѽ  ߽ ᡡ   ᬬ;
        - ѽ  ߽ ԫ   ᬬ ߽ѽԿ ӫԴѡ-
         5 - 7 Ὣ, 8 - 10 ᬬ, 󬽯ڿ Ҭᡡ  ߫.
        * ߻   , ߫Ӫڿ ӿӫᡡ һѡ  Ԭѡ  ӫѡ ԫ-
        Կ (Ẽ 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 3/8, 6/8); ӿӡ  - . ѵ "櫽񪿫" N 66 - 68.
        佴 ӡ ѽѡ:
              ūһڿ 񫽪ѡ:
        * ỿ ߡٮ   ѽ߬ ټ Ἷ, ߫Ӫڿ Ԭѡ  -
         ᵿ, ӫԴѡ 8 - 12 ԫ. ӿӡ  - . տ "1000 ӿӫ 
        Һ٬ " N 888. Ѽ ٻѡ - 30 .
        * ѽ  ߽   ᬬ,  ѡ  ԫԿ   Ҭ, Ӽ߬ -
        ߽ѽԿ  ߡ ᬬ ѡ  Ӽ ӿ (ԫ  -
        үڿ  ԫԿ  ѻѡ ӫ);
        * ߻   ӿ  ѡ   Ԭѡ  ҽ, ԫᵿټ 
         ӿԼ߬ Դ.
        ᡿  ߻᡿  ѻᡫ
             ūһڿ 񫽪ѡ:
        1. ߻ ӫἼ, ߫ԫү  ӫѡ ߬, һ  Ὣ Ӽ.
        ӿ:
        * 	.. . ѽ   -Ѻ ᪫, I ԫ 
        	. իѡ. 櫡 N 1, 1 .
        	. ѡѽ߫. ߡ Ѻ ߽
        * 	.. . ߡ ѡ
        	. . 櫡 -᪫, N 15, 1 .
        	. ᮬ߬.    "Ѽѡ " ("", "ǻѽ"  .)
        2. ӫ    ߽ ӫѡ.
         
        ƣ ""
        ѵ "Һ٬, Ҭѽ ѬԿ ߬ ѡ, ѻѽ"
        һѽ ߻᡿:
        * ӫүڿ ݬѡ (߬ ߬ ߬)  
        Ҽ  ӫ ԫӿ ҽ
        * 櫽񪿫 (ѡ, ԡ)
        * Ӽ
        * ѻᡫ
        * ӫ ߫᡿  ߡ ӿԿ ( ѡ)
        * ߬ ٬ (ѡ)
        
        
        ӿӡ ᡿  ӫүѼ ݬѡ
        
        ߬ Ӭ-߬ ߬ -IV .
        ߬ Ӭ-߬ ߬ V-XVII .
        Ӽ Ӭ-߬ ߬  XVII .
        Կ Կ 񿵿 ӫ߻  XII   .
        ի-Һ٬  濡 ӿ.
        ߽ ԫӫ  ߬߬ ެ.
        ߽Ҫ    ߬ ԫӫ   ԫԿ.
        
        諽Ҽ  ӫ ԫӿ ҽ 񻫽 ٴѡ  ҽӡ ӫ ӿѡ-
        . ߫ 󡿼᡿ ѽߴ ᡿  ԫӿ ߬ Һ٬. 
        ӿӡ ᡿  ߻᡿  ߫񪿫
        ſѡ . ߡٮ  ߼ᡡ (-Ӽ߬) ߬  Ӽ 
        ӿ, ߫Ӫڿ Ԭѡ, ẽ  ԫᵿ  ӿԼ߬ Ѯ. Ѽ ỿ߿ - 
         30 ,  ӫ᡿ - 10.
        	ԡٮ .
                                    :
        - -ߡ ӿ,  ҽ  ẽټ ӿԼ߬  ԫᵿټ 
        Դ;
        - -ߡ ӿ  ԿԿ Ӭ󡫮 Һ٬ V - XVII . (ѡٮ, Ѽ-
        ѡٮ ӫ߻, ӫ ߿)   XIX -  .;
        Ļѽ  ߽:
        - ᬬ ẽ Ҭ;
        - Ӽ߬ ӫѡ, ߫Ӫ  ԫ߬ ӫ,   Ԭѡ  ҽ-
          ԫԿ , ԫӫ  Ѯ ѻѡ ӫ, ݡӼ ѻᬬ  -
        , ᬬ ᪫ӫ-ӡ ߿Ѽ.
        
        ӿӡ ᡿  ߻᡿  Ӽ
        ٻѡ  ѻᡫ ᡿:
        -  ԫ  ҽүڿ ӫѡ, ᬬ   ѡ,
        - Ӽ߬ ὿ 񽫪ѡ ,
        - ԡ   ӫ   ѫӿ Һ٬, Ӽ, ὿ Һ٬ ӫѡ, -
        .
        ӿӡ ᡿  ߻᡿  ѻᡫ
         ߬ ӫѡ ( ..  - ѽ    "ӫޫ Ѽӿӫᡡ ", 
        . ᬫ - ѽ  ). 
         ӫѡ һ Ӽ (߫  ӿᵿ). 
        ӫѡ Ὣ Ӽ, (ӿ, ѻᡡ  . ռ᡿, . ᮬ߬, 
        . ӫ, . ӿ, . ԫ  .). 
        ӫ   ӫѡ Ѯ Կ     Ҭ 
        ӿӡ ᡿  һڿ  ެ Ӭ ѡ
          Ӭ ѡ ӿߴ  ߽ ӫ߻᡿    25 .
        ūһڿ ӫի ߫᡿   ߽үڿ ݬѡ: 
        1. ᡿  ߡ ӿԿ (  ӫ.  潫߬); 
        2. ѵ.
          
        1. ѡ   ԫѡ Ӭ ߡѡ (ӿ, "Үߴ, 󫡫ߡٮ -
        ", Ἣѡ 5 ,  ĻԿ ١).
        2. 櫽񪿫.
        ӿӡ ᡿  ߫񪿫
        ӿ һѡ  I  ӿѡ 񫽪ѡ:
        1.  ԫԴ   ᬫ 󬽯ѽ  Ἴ     ԫ  ԫ.
        2.    ԫԴ ӫ,   ѡѼ  ѽ  ߽:
        * ԫ   һѡ;
        * ԫ߬    󬽯ѽ  ;
        *  Ѻ ᪫ӡ  ӡ (Ѻ ѡ).
        3.  Ҭ ( ԫԿ):
        *     󬽯ѽ  ;
        *  Ѻ ᪫ӡ  ӡ (Ѻ ѡ);
        * ѽ  ߽ ᡡ   ᬬ.
        4.    ԫٮ  (Ẽ 2/4, 3/4); ӿӡ  - .ѵ "櫽񪿫"
        NN 18,19; .ὼ٬, .ӿ񬿡 "ߡ ߫񪿫" NN 133, 136.
        ӿ һѡ  II  ӿѡ 񫽪ѡ:
        1. ỿ ߡٮ ԫٮ  ӫԴѡ 6-8 ԫ, Ẽ 2/4, 3/4, Ѽ -
        ѡ - 30 . ӿӡ  - .տ "1000 ӿӫ Һ٬ "  
        NN 181-185.
        2.  ԫԴ   ᬫ 󬽯ѽ  Ἴ,    ԫ һѡ (᪫ 
        ٮ, ӿ  ).
        3.    ԫԴ ӫ,   ѡѼ  ѽ  ߽:
        * ԫ߬ һѡ ;
        * ԫ߬   ѽ , 󬽯 ӿԫ;
        * Ѻ ߡ һѡѮ   ѡ;
        * 񫼿ԫٮ ѻᬬ  ߡ󡫼 .
        4.  Ҭ ( ԫԿ) ӫ,   ѡѼ:
        *   󡿺    󬽯ѽ  ;
        * Ѻ ᪫ӡ  ӡ   ѡ;
        * ٮ ᪫ӡٮ ѻᬬ.
        5. Ļѽ  ߽:
        * ᡡ   ᬬ;
        *   ᬬ ԫ ߽ѽԿ ӫԴѡ 3-4 , 
        3-4 ᬬ, 󬽯ڿ Ҭᡡ  ߫.
        6.    ԫٮ  (Ẽ 2/4, 3/4, 4/4); ӿӡ  - .ѵ 
        "櫽񪿫"  NN 20, 22, 26; .ὼ٬, .ӿ񬿡 "ߡ ߫񪿫" NN 329, 330.
        ӿ һѡ  III  ӿѡ 񫽪ѡ:
        1. ỿ ߡٮ  ӫԴѡ 8-10 ԫ, Ẽ 2/4, 3/4, 4/4; ԫٮ, ߫ 
        ߬Ἷ, ӿԼ߬ Դ. Ѽ ٻѡ - 30 . ӿӡ  - .տ 
        "1000 ӿӫ Һ٬ " NN 236-239.
        2.  ԫԴ  Ѽ ᬫ 󬽯ѽ  Ἴ,    һѡ (  ᪫, 
        ӿ  ).
        3.  ԫԴ   ᬫ 󬽯ѽ ӫ,   ѡѼ, ѽ  ߽:
        *  ԫ߬  ӿӫᡡ һѡ ;
        *    ѽ , 󬽯 ӿԫ  ӡ ;
        *  Ѻ ߡ һѡѮ   ѡ, Ѻ II  VII һѡѮ Ѻ ѡ (Ӽ-
        ߬ );
        *  񫼿ԫٮ ѻᬬ  ѡ;
        *  ѻᬬ II  VII һѡѮ  ߡ󡫼  ( ᪫   Ӽ߬ ạ-
        Կ).
        4.  Ҭ ( ԫԿ) ӫ,   ѡѼ:
        *    ѽ  (  󡿺), 󬽯 ӿԫ  ӡ ;
        *  Ѻ ᪫ӡ  ӡ   ѡ, Ҽѡѡ  ѽѡ Ѻ Ѻ -
        ѡ;
        *   ѻᬬ  ߡ󡫼 .
        5. Ļѽ  ߽:
        *  ᡡ   ᬬ;
        *    ᬬ ԫ ߽ѽԿ ӫԴѡ 5-6 Ὣ, 
        4-5 ᬬ, 󬽯ڿ Ҭᡡ  ߫.
        6.    ԫٮ   ߬ӿ  ߫  (Ẽ 2/4, 3/4, 4/4); ӿӡ 
         - .ѵ "櫽񪿫" NN 55-57,60; .ὼ٬, .ӿ񬿡 "ߡ ߫񪿫" 
        NN 431, 436, 437.                                           
          
        ūӴ ӫѡ ߻ѵ һѽ ߻᡿
        1. ӫ߼ :
        ӫߴ  һڿ  ѽѡ "ꬫ", "Ҽѡ ߬", "ᵿ 
        ", "Ӭ ޿". 佴 һڿ  ѽѡ "ꬫ", "Ҽѡ ߬", "-
        ᵿ " ߴ ӿԿ 󫻿ߡ ,  󫺼Կ, 5-10 ߬    -
        ӿѡ. ߽  ӿѡ ٽ   Կ ᡿, ԫ ߽  ᬪ ӿԿ. 佴 -
        ڿ  ѽѡ "Ӭ ޿" ߴ ӿԿ    Կ ޿,  ᬪ,  
        󫺼Կ,  Կ 󫻿߿ ( 5-10 ). 
        2. 諻ӫ᡿ :
        ӫߴ  һڿ  ѽѡ "ꬫ", "Ҽѡ ߬", "ᵿ 
        "  񻫽 ߻߫ ӿѡ    ԫ ӫ . جѡ ӫ-
        ߴ  ѡ    ߴ 8 ߫  . 諻ӫ᡿ ӫߴ  ѻӫҬ  ա  
         ӿѡ,  ߡ󡫼, Ҽ  ѽ (󫺼 , ߽  Ѽ).  ѫի񿼫 
          ӿѡ ӿ߿  ߫  ݬѡ. 
        3. 󫻿:
        ӫߴ  һڿ  ѽѡ "ꬫ", "Ҽѡ ߬"  "ᵿ 
        "  񻫽 ѡ ӿѡ ߡټ ٬Ἷ  Կ Ѽ߬ ԯӼԡ -
        󫻿߿. جѡ ӫߴ  ѡ 6 ߫  . 󫻿ߡٮ ԯӼ ٻߴ  Ҽ 
        Ẽӫ 40  60 ߼  ӫ 󫻿ߡ ա (ѽ, , Ѽ, ߽). ӿ  
         ӿѡ ӿ߿  ߫.
        4. ɿҡ:
        ӫߴ  һڿ  ѽѡ "ꬫ", "Ҽѡ ߬"  "ᵿ " 
         񻫽 ѡ ӿѡ ߡټ ٬Ἷ  Կ Ѽ߬ ӿҡ. جѡ ӫߴ  
        ѡ 6 ߫  ;  ߴ ԯӼ. ɿҡ ٻߴ  Ҽ Ẽӫ 40  60 ߼  
        . ӿ    ӿѡ ӿ߿  ߫.
        5. 諻ӫ᡿ ӡѡ:
        ӫߴ  һڿ  ѽѡ "Ӭ ޿"  񻫽 ѡ ӿѡԫ -
        󫻿ߡ ա,  ᬪ ᬫ  ẵἿ Ӭ ޿. جѡ ӫߴ  ѡ 6 ߫  
          ߫ԫ  ӫ᡿ ẵ Ӭ ޿  󫻿ߡ ա (ѽ, , Ѽ-
        ).  ٻߴ  Ҽ Ẽӫ 40  60 ߼. ӿ   ӿѡ ӿ߿  ߫. 
        6. ѫ ԫӿ ߬ (ԡ):
        ӫߴ  Ӽ  ߻᡿  һڿ  ѽѡ "".
        7. ѫ ԫӿ ߬ (ӫ ߫᡿):
        ӫߴ  һڿ ѽѡ: ԫӿ  ѫӿ ӿԿ߬ ߬,  ꬫ, -
         , Ҽѡ ߬, Ӭ ޿  񻫽 ٴѡ  ҽӡ ӫ 
        ӿѡ,  ᬫ  ߡ󡫮 ӫ  ԫӿ ߬,  ᬪ  ټ ҺѮټ ߫-
        ᡿ ߬. ߫ 󡿼᡿ ѽߴ ᡿  ߬ Ӭ󡫼 ߬, ἴԡ 
        ԫӫ ᡴߴ  ҺѮ ߫᡿ ѡ ߬ ѿ, ѡ ҺѴ -
        ߬ ҽ  ߬ ѡ ѻ. ǡѴ , Һ Ѽ, ҺѴ ếѽ ߬ 
        . .. ެ, ѡ ԫӿ߬ ҺѴ.
         
        ӫἼ һѽ ߻᡿  ߫᡿
         ѫѮ ԫӿ ߬
        I.  
        1.   տѬ   (Ἷ, ).
        2.    꺫ếѽ ߬   (󫻿, ߬ҽ).
        3. ߬ Ѫ. ƿ  ạѡ տѬӡ ߫Ҫѡ (, ӵ) Ҽ, Ǭ-
        , 󿽫  ߿ӿ.
        4. տѬ Ѯ ѵ. ӡ ߿Ѽ. ߬ ӫ.
        5. ҽ Ѯ ѵ. ѽ.  Կ.
        6. տѬ  ɿ. ƿ տѬӡ ߫Ҫѡ. ǬҬ, ӿҼ Ӭ, , -
        , Ӽ. 諡ҬԿ  ѡ ߫ѡԿ.
        7. ҽ  ɿ. ū,  ߬ҽ, ѽ, ἴԡ.
        8. ᡡӿԿ߬ ߬. 󫻿 ᬫ. 毪  ߿󫽿. ǡԿ ԫ ᡡӿԿ-
        ߬ ߬. ߬ ūѿ  ӬҽҼ.
        9. տѬ 鿺Կ. ƿ Ἣ (ế, ԫ-һٮ ).  ѡ,   
        諡Կ߬.
        10. 鿺Կ߬ . ūԿ ,  Խ  Կ. ա. ߡ ἴԡ. ߡ 
        Կ ѡ ߻  ӿ. (" Ҭӡٮ", "  濽", "ԫԫ")  
        ӿ. ("ӿ", "ѡ", "ѡ").
        11. 鿺Կ߬ Ῥ  ߬. Ѽ ӫ߻߿ ԫ-һ .
        12. ɫ߬ տѬ (ế   Խ  Կ ).
        13. տѬ Կ:  ӿԿ, ӿ. 濡Ѻ ߬  Կ߬ ߫ (ᪿ, 
        ߬ҽ).
        14. ӫԫѡ  ᡡ 髺ӫѡ  ὿. 󫻿 䪫ԫ. ߡ  ӫѡԫ ( -
        , ҡѽ߬, 䫡ѽ).
        15. տѬ ߫ 髺ӫѡ.  .   ɿ. (, ѽѽ), . ώ.
        16. 󫻿  ߬ҽ ߫ 髺ӫѡ. ѫ  鿡, ݽ, ѽѽ, 䪫񪫡, 
        ƿ.
        17. ߬ ӡ 髺ӫѡ. ӽ. (  خ, , Ѯѽ). Ӽ᡿ ().
        18. ߬ ὿ XVII Ѭ. տѬ  ߬ҽ ӫ. (ӡ, ӫ). 󫻿 -
        .
        19. 󫻿 ӿ, ⫽  ߻᡿ XVII Ѭ (ѡ,  Ѯ, , Ѽ, " -
        ", ؽ Ѭ, ѽ߬).
        20. ߬ ᡵ XVII-XVIII Ѭ. (ѡ, ԫ, ѡ, ). տѬӡٮ  ὴ.
        21. 󫻿 ӫѮ߬ ӫԿ (⫮, ӿ, ѽ).
        22.  ߬ ᡵ  -  XIX Ѭ. (ӫ, , . .) 꼻߿  Կ߿-
        .
        II.  
        ߬ ߬
        1. ߬ ߬ ߿ X-XI .   Կ߬ ԫ.  .   . տѬ, -
        Ῥ, ߬.
        2. տѬ  󫻿 񿼿ӫ-Һ߬ ߿ XII-XIII . ӫѽ Ѵѽ ӿ 䫽-
        Ҭ, ǡѴ ߬  󫽫 ޫ Ѻ. ѽѡ ߫ 񿼿   
        ӫ.
        3. տѬ  Ҽѡ 󫻿 ӫ  ߬ XI-XIII . ߫ѡԿ ӫ߬ -
        , ߬ ӫ ( ӫ߬,  ). ӡٮ  տѬ 
        ԫӫ  XII Ѭ (Ӭ   ).
        4. 䫼߬  (ӿ).
        5. տѬ  󫻿 ӫ  ߬ XIV-XV .
        6.  ѫ Ѭ.
        7. տѬ ߬ XIV-XV . ߬߬ Ѽ (߫, ߬ ӫ).
        8.  ǡѴ  ( . ӫ  .)
        9. 󫻿 俫߿.
        10. տѬ XVI Ѭ. ӫ  (Ӭ 髺ѡ  諽ѡ߬, ߫ ߿ ѡ-
        ). ߬ ӫѽ.
        11. տѬ XVII Ѭ.  "ެ߬" ӫ (Ӭ ūӫ    .).
        12. 󫻿 XVII Ѭ (߬ ӫ߽  ɫԫ ѽ). ߬ ҪѮ .  
        濼 ᬫ. ҡ.
        ߬ ߬ 18 Ѭ
        1. ӿ   ߬ 18 Ѭ.  ӿԿ ҽӡ Կ . ɫ 
        ӫ-ᡵ  ᡫѡ  ߬  Կ 
        2. տѬ  XVIII Ѭ. ӫѽ  ( . Ѻ   .) ἴԡ ӫ-
        ߬ Ѽѡ  ߬ 
        3. 꺫ếѽ ߬ ӫ߬ Ѽѡ: 󫻿 (.. 쿬Կ, . ),  (. -
        ), ߬ҽ (.-. ѽ).
        4. տѬ  18 Ѭ. Կ ӫ  ɫ߿   һѮ޿ ếѽ - .-.ѽ 
        (ӵ  ). ӿ ӫ ߫Ҫѡ  ߬.
        5. ߬   18 Ѭ (. ޡ, . ǡӫ, . ҡ).
        6. ߡ᡿ ǬѼ   ɫ߿,  ѡ ԫ ߫Կ  ߽ү Կ -
        . ūѡ  ӫ, ߼ѡ Կ ӿѡԿӫ. Կ ߿:  ӿԿ, -
         ẵ  ɫ߿ (᡿ ǬѼ ).
        7. տѬ ߬ ߿ ԫӫ  18 Ѭ: ߬  .  . ѡ-
        , . ᬫ, . ӫ, . ѡ, . ӫ (ߡ ߫Ҫѡ).
        8. ߬ 󫻿 ԫӫ  18 Ѭ.  ẵ ԫӿ߬  (. ѡ). ߵ  
        ԡ 󫻿߿:  . ɫԫ, . 󿵬, . ӫ󿬫߬.
        9. ߬ ߬ҽ ԫӫ  18 Ѭ (ӿ ẽ ӫ).  . , . 
        諺߬. "ٮ 񡿬" .-. .
        ߬ ߬ 19 Ѭ -  20 Ѭ
        1. տѬ ߬ ߿   19 Ѭ    ( ߬ ߫ .ӫտ, -
        Ѯ .ӫ, Ӫ ƫ  ƫ,  .ɫ߿.)
        2. տѬ ߽ѻӡ ߬: ., .忽 (ѡ   ӫ).
        3. Ҽѡ ߬ҽ ݻտ Ἳ.  . ԫ. (ἴԡ   ū߬), 
        ߬ҽӡ  Ѯ   .
        4. ߬   Ѯ  Կ XIX Ѭ. . 迻ѡ߬, . ӫ, . ӯ, . ӿ.
        5. ߬ ԫӿ߬ Կ   XIX . . ӯ  . ᡫ.
        6. ԫ   ߬ 󫻿߿ 19 Ѭ.  . ѡѵᡫ  . ԫ.
        7. ԫӿ߬ "Կ"  տѬ  -  XIX Ѭ. ( ӿ ߿ѽ  ߬, -
        񿼿߬ ߫    .)
        8. ߬ 󫻿 ԫӫ  19 Ѭ. ӫ Կ 60- . "ӿԿ߬ ὿" . ӫ. 
        ᡿ᵿ ƫӿ 󿪡 ѡ  (Կ߬ ӫἼ, ӫ, -
         ӫѡ ߡ ѽѮ).
        9.  . ѻ (ӫ, ԫӿ߬ Կ, ). ԫӿ߬ ԡ .. ӿ. 
        10. ѽ߬ Ѽ  ߬ 󫻿߿ ԫӫ  19 Ѭ. . ߬, . , . ūѡ.
        11. ߬ Ѯ ԫӫ . XIX Ѭ. . ߫, . ߿, . ެ, .   .
        12. ߡ ѡ ѡ   󫻿߿ Ѫ XIX-XX .  . ӫ, . 
        ѽ, 񫪡 ѡ " ߬". . ӿ߫-ԫ, . ӫ-񬿡.
        
        1. 伿ӿ .. Ԭ ԫӿ ߬. ., 1996. . 1, 2.
        2. ǽѡ .., ҽ .., Ž ..,  .., ߬ .. ԫӿ ߬  ߫-
        ߬ ߬. ., 1989.
        3. ѡ . ԫӿ ߬ 󫻿߿ XIX Ѭ. ., 1901. ѿ᡿ ., 1990- .
        4. ߫ .., ءԫ . ߫. ߡ ԫӿ ߬. ., 1996.
        5. ӡ ⫼ӿ. ԫӿ ߬. ., 1998.
        6. ҡ .., ߯ ..  . ԫӿ ߬ տѬ (Ԭ ). ., 1951.
        7.  .,  . ߬  ū߬ (߻-ѽ). ., 1979. ӿ "ἴԡ -
         ߬ 櫯".
        8.  ..  ߬ ӫ. ., 1980. ӿ "ἴԡ ߬ ߬ 櫯".
        9. 衿  ᡬ- (ѡ)  ӿ "ἴԡ ߬ ߬ 櫯".
        10.  .. ԫӿ ߬ ߬ ԫӫ  XIX Ѭ. ., 1989.
        11.  .. ԫӿ ߬. ӫѮ߬ ߬ (1 ). ., 1983. . ѿ᡿ 1990- .
        12.  .. ԫӿ ߬. ߬  ߫߬ ߬. ., 1989.
        13.  .., ߬ .. ߬ Ѯ ߿. ., 1993.
        14. ߻ѡ߬ .. ߽  ߽󡫮 Ӭ. ., 1989   ѿ᡿.
        15. Ѭѡߴ ᬫߴ  Ἷ ..   .. ǽԫ.
          ѽ, ᡡ ẫѽټ Ѫѡ  ӫ߿ ẫ᡿,  󽴯ߴ 
        ҼѡἿ, Ӫڿ ὿  ()  ẫ᡿,  ӿѼ 諼߿Ѯ Һ  ӿߴ.